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Ch. 2 Cognitive Development

by: Texana Sonnefeld

Ch. 2 Cognitive Development EDP 301

Texana Sonnefeld
GPA 3.3
Child development
Heidi Burross

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About this Document

Notes, examples, and what was said during class are all included in this weeks notes! Additional charts and visuals are also included.
Child development
Heidi Burross
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Friday March 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 03/27/15
323 gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer CHAPTER 2 Cognitive Development Learning Goals 1 Define development and issues related to development 2 Explain the main processes and periods in development as well as links between development and education 3 Describe and compare the cognitive developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky Stages of development 0 Defining development growth progress building maturing end point adultlike Ema 393 39 r 3 g 39 39 quot3quot PHGEEEEES BF EUELDFMEHT adulmn d BIDLDEIEAL Enema FR DE ESSES Mi l e Eh39i ll huud 39 Ell EMUWFIE1HAJL Em Ehi39lidh it REEESEES Infant Developmental processes all affect all stages of development and intertwine with each other 0 Biological processes and genetic inheritance physical puberty muscle teeth growth brain growth heightweight I Coanitive processes gain knowledge skills perception changes in the way we think language decision making I Socioemotional processes interactions empathyunderstanding of others viewpoints identity social rolesrelationships how we act in different situations Stages of development 0 From conception to death growing constantly I Prenatal before birth I Neonatal new born birth to 2 months I Infancy 2 months to 2 years I Toddlerhood 2 years 35 years Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer I Early childhood 356 years I Middle childhood 6 years 10 years I Late childhoodpreadolescence 10 years 12 years I Adolescence 12 year 17 years I Young adulthood 17 years late 20s I Middle adulthood late 20s 60s I Late adulthood 60s to death Emphasized in this course Issues in development I Naturenurture issue I Nature geneticsbiology innate I Nurture environment I Continuitydiscontinuity issue I Continuousquantitative smooth curve changes more smooth continuous process amount of what you have ex Height doesn t change in quality I Discontinuousqualitative stair step curve still going up but qualitatively different types ex Piaget s stage theory Stage one is qualitatively less than stage two still growing but different 0 Timing of exposure issue I Critical periods times in which we are more affected by environmental in uences ex Language development critical period I Delays 325 Principles of development any type of development 0 The sequence of development tends to be universal people tend to be in stage 1 before stage 2 the sequence tends to hold 0 Individuals develop at different rates growth spurts rate of development differs 0 Different areas develop and reach maturation at different rates within ourselves we mature at different times even within different types of development ex in adolescences fingers elongate faster than arms I Abilities become more specialized and integrated with development as we get older our brains specialize in different things skill set integration of skills and coordination of those skills different areas of the brain that are more developed are more likely to have better skill in those areas when we re older Lev Vygotsky 18961934 socialcognitive theory learn in the context of the society scaffolding Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer 0 Historical context Russian revolution time period power to the people In uenced his theories working together and learning together 0 Basics of theory below Vygotsky s sociocognitive theory I Cognition is constructed and based on I Social interactions how we interact with whom and where I Cultural background beliefsvalues in uence how we learn what we learn what is most important to us priorities how we interact with information could affect opportunities I Language important part of learning ex slinky I Distance between where learner is alone and where she can be with help slinky is stretched out from one hand to the other what affects that gap How much attention you give motivation personal background experience amounttype of content I Need communication and social support who gets you along language communication to move the slinky they provide the support I Scaffolding support along the way until they reach the next level I Initially strong support for learner lessen as foundation built Tasks too dif cult for child to master E w h t f I VE If39l l guth illttl lnl ruquotwpn wuhlII l y luril39nw llmln i39l IrIw l wtar n ivil i 39quot iquotl Inil m d n allul f l ll ii Hf AH drill IHHI N M I39 tm IE r m 7 L Illilwl ill lmrulmlv eln IIIIJHHJ UNI H WW wwglwtstl rm 39lll ltrar Lulu flyquot 1n hl wmhlnrg ultmlr Tasks child can master alone Children s 0 Children talk themselves through tasks Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer I Initially may be done out loud occasionally I Gradually becomes more silent as adults we internalize processes more 0 Foundation for all higher cognitive processes basis for all thought higher processes 0 Helps guide behavior I learning between the learner and task in Vygotsky s theory I Play can act as ZPD zone where they work together I substitutions help children separate thinking from objects make the separation between imaginary and real know that a table is not a castle 0 Rules strengthen capacity to think before acting if something is a door don t you dare walk in through the wall sometimes rules are unfair make them in their favor Vygotsky and education 0 Role of the teacher facilitator set up the situation they look up to them socially provide assistance understanding appropriateness socially support and correct helping them scaffold 0 Peer collaboration group work socially working with others learning with others and teaching others group learning I Reciprocal teaching same skill level each one teach one take turns being teacher and student roles can be the same lesson or different ones Evaluation of Vygotsky s theory Contributions encouraging social atmosphere helping them become more independent from the teacher focused on child and what they need allows for sharing value of ideas and increasing creativity social and learning are not separated Criticisms ZPD use is difficult measuring and distinguishing for each child in a classroom it is general he died shortly after creating this theory children can learn without scaffolding children can learn without a social environment figuring how something works on their own environment can affect ways that learning occurs may differ for various children Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Theory into Practice image from Panopto 325 on D2L 115 What 2 J assignment Slimline Clams v ls 1 What would Vygotsky say It is within peters ZPD the task is above Suzanne s ZPD Clarice has mastered the task so it is above her ZPD 2 What s the assistance Scaffolding 32 Jean Piaget 18961980 0 Historical context started publishing at age 12 earned PhD at age 21 interested in Marine life in his early career married his grad assistant had 4 kids and started to become interested in child development test who would benefit from higher education helped with testing research fascinated in wrong answer and the reasons behind them 0 General theory developmental theory schemas scripts Piaget s 4 stages 0 Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four qualitative stages each stage has a different quality to it 0 Each is agerelated or biological and distinctive qualitative 0 Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than the previous growth 0 Piaget designed tasks to test a child s cognitive functioning for each stage testing where a child is in the theory designed tasks for this Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer 0 While Piaget stopped the theory at the fourth stage he never claimed cognitive development ended there and supported research and theories beyond his fourth level only interested in the adolescence stage so stops after stage 4 HIE M i im FEE Ti H il ELIEE ET EZE The infant eenetmete an he ehilt Ieegine te The eh il ei een new TIE355i Il39le etle Ieeeent reeeene in u nd eretentling ef the represent the werltl with llegiee39lly aheut eenerete mere ehetteet idealietie by mutinginting een ee r weteh em j imegee Theee eyelets en elemailI a el liegieai were EitFeEFiEHEEE With pl ljeiea l wurel5 and rE EEtj hs hjEEEE i tiii IiITerEnt eetieme than intent increaseii eyml eelie hrgreeeee him reflexive thinking enel gel beghnel Lil39lStii lEILiElli eeliern at birth be me eehnetim u et eemerg the beginning at Ejrw39rn39hanlii i39l39liFl l39l39iIlgiEI39Ii and phf iga l theuht tewerel the Kennel eetieh ef the stage The it E39Ir 39hZruglli e tn 3 hire ear 1 Piaget s Sensorimotor Stage 0 Birth2 years 0 Coordination of sensory experiences with motor actions learning how to distinguish among different stimuli control limbs distinguishing sounds and images etc 0 By end have I Object permanence if you take away an object they still know it exists object is permanent even if they can t sense it develops at 18 months I Mental representations representing of objects mentally language is the best example this word represents this object once this is mastered they are moving into the next stage according to Piaget develops at 24 months Imitation 0 Piaget develops at about 18 months I Newer research I 6 weeks facial expressions imitation you make a face at them and they do the face back at you I 6 9 months direct imitation you go tickle tickle tickle they go tickle tickle tickle thev do what vou do when vou do it I 12 14 months imitation of intentions you go to throw a ball but don t actually throw it they actually throw the ball this shows the understand the Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer movement they do what they think you were about to do even though they didn t see vou follow through with it I18 months mental representations displayed through differed imitation give a kid a phone if they put it up to their ear they are showing imitation if they chew it or throw it they are probably not there they are doing it even though they didn t see you or anyone do it right then 2 Piaget s Preoperational Stage 0 Ages 27 0 Operations refers to logical thought I So they are still prelogical I Make huge leaps in thought processes have the start of something and they make a jump to the outcome without having the knowledge of what the outcome could be I Claims not often based in evidence 0 identifiers that they are still preoperational understands the world in their own perspective they don t understand that other people have different perspectives have difficulty with empathy and sharing cognitively behaviorally they will show they understand it first then they will eventually actually understand it cognitively ex A girl comforts someone who is crying and says I am sorry but they do not actually understand that they are sadhurting Piaget s preoperational stage symbolic function substage 0 Ages 24 I Symbolic thought understand symbols what a ag stands for language represents objects etc 0 Language they are sponges absorb everything tons of words every month using more words 0 Limitations I Lack perspective taking get mad you for yelling at them in a dream they had I Animism inanimate objects have life two general rules 1 if it moves its alive and 2 if it looks like it s alive they have trouble understanding that plants are alive because they don t see them moving 330 Announcement There Wlll be no language development on the exam It is being cut from this course Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Three mountains task Here L5 3 view n a landscape Here is a map mlquot the same uandscape Wuu ld you SEEP the view 39 above if my were start ding at Miti m in E IE at D but the map httpserccaretonedudetaiIsimages25965htm I Examines perspectivetaking a child with a lack of perspective will describe what is in front of them always If you ask what is in front of you they will again explain what is in front of them httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvGIXNJYrNC8 Development of play 0 Stages I Ages 023 typically and prompted kids do not play with each other I Ages 34 do see interaction with each other both playing with the same thing or same area but side by side can be talking to each other but mostly doing their own thing not cooperative I Ages 46 role play doctor house school I Ages 612 lots of fantasy lava tag Progression of drawing skills 0 Stages I Age 2 scribble just movement developing motor skills can identify what they ve drawn typically only when you ask them I Age 3 more intentional drawing drawing something specific parents may be able to identify but strangers may not Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer I Ages 34 start to get drawings of people skewed forms of people exaggerate features bigger bodies smaller limbs pictures of houses people animals more identifiable letter imitation ex if you draw a letter they can imitate you I Preschool refined skills don t need to imitate they can typically write their own name from memory Piaget s preoperational stage intuitive thought substage 0 Ages 47 0 Intuitive thought knowledge without reason gut feeling starting to form logic some basis their gut feeling I Centration is focusing on one aspect of an experience to the exclusion of other aspectsfeatures of the experiences 0 Lack of conservation ability to understand that objects retain certain properties without changing other properties Ex An object does not change shape if you change location Ex If mom gets a short haircut she is still they same person and still a woman 0 Simple classification sort by color they can do that if you ask to sort by color and shape they cannot do it easily they focus on one aspect at a t1me 3 Piaget s concrete operations stage 0 Ages 7adolescence typically 11 or 12 I Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning but only in concrete situations I By the end kids have actually using logical but limited to concrete situations concrete have had experience with and is not abstract I Conservation I Multiple and hierarchical classification sort blocks by color and shape hierarchical classification I Seriation have to understand importance of order relative perspective before this age they can put things from smallest to biggest but if you give them another one after they have completed the task they have trouble doing it before they have these concrete skills httpswwwvoutubecomwatch vMDREJIngv8 I Transitivity using logic to solve problems ex A gt B and B gt C then what is A to C Conservation Ordered by when people usually develop these skills number I weight Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Cm len Tish Pragmatism Arnhem tin HI39I39HE39 l39llJl39il39iHIIE39l39 ranuini in i ti39l raw Length Imach Ef 39iii 39 39 itki jun a long as the ether Mi is Eh 39l tlit 1am alumni lgFglbg im ugh IiJiii Ea ilJtpld Ia hmlht l i i alumni Elfwaitr rl Eachglam a 3911 a 1 1 fi New D mHth tm lziaiis army tite ea mri39 Hierarchical classi cation Number kids that do not have conservation of number will say the row with spaced out pennies has more pennies than the other row Mass squish one ball of clay they will say one has more mass Liquid ll a wide container with the same container they are looking at the height of the liquid even though they saw it being Tnmfemntim Haw H39l 39 Eh urn mumbera39FpenniEE in i th remainders em mere i il Him a re the ma Hide mmquot Burg Wit um lmg iquot dtih nth miter haw Eh H aweum glider r due I intent Maw de mh glass himstream mun erarcnicir de um hm mm 31 1 i i F IL i i l WMEHWE phEi gEhEm back an EhE salie nan wn rm what 59le Earth thi hda39 br Pim with i l l Eh Elma r nt High mm 0 When shown a family tree of four generations the concrete operational child can classify the members vertically horizontally and obliquely Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Ex teachers are people outside of school they go to the grocery store Ex adults have parents and are still children to them kids have trouble understanding this IIquot E 4 Piaget s formal operations stage 0 Age onset of adolescence into adulthood 11 or 12 about 17 0 Signs of formal operations thoughts I Abstract reasoning concepts that are abstract and don t have concrete basis ex negative numbers infinity freedom 0 Beyond personal and tangible experiences I Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning whether they use a systematic approach to testing develops naturally according to Piaget but research shows that using these techniquestasks in school can increase these skills 0 Systematic approaches to problemsolving Ex have a student pick a card out of a deck ask a series of yes no questions what s the min of yesno questions to find out the card he has 57 questions is it red Is it spades Is it a face card Is it even Is it six or under Is it six I Systematic approach trying to eliminate as many possibilities to try and solve the problem faster ex Guess Who game uses this strategy Piaget s pendulum problem ask adolescent what makes the pendulum swing faster amount of weight length of string forceheight you release the pendulum key to formal operations do they take a systematic approach or only do one approach at a time It s how they test the variables and if they are systematic or not Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Consequences of abstract thought I Adolescent egocentrism tends to develop with formal operations can conceptualize ideas that don t exist think of things you ve never seenheard yourself issues in the world space out there see themselves as special and unique David Elkind took Piaget s term to different lengths found some outcomes I Imaginary audience the belief you are being watched people are interested in what you do ex if you wear the same shirt twice in a week people will know I Sensitivity to others criticism don t like to be criticized think that you don t get it so you cant criticize them I Personal fable story the adolescent tells about themselves who they are what they are doing in the world the are going to be the best in the world 0 Idealism and criticism idealism they are going to save and change the world give food to stop world hunger problem with idealism is that they lack experience they are very critical of others even though they do not like others giving them criticism 0 Problems with decision making don t have experience to understand long term consequences how their decisions may affect them in the future 41 Beyond or late formal operations Not tested on this slide 0 Not Piaget s work but grew from his stage theory 0 Those who achieve late formal ops tend to I See complementary relationships dialectics I Appreciate asymmetry I Be open to change I Redefine limits I Use intuition amp understand significance I Prefer creative solutions I Identify amp reconfigure problems Overall evaluation of Piaget s theory Contributions clear benchmarks welldefined and laid out where someone should be at a certain age one of the first to talk about cognition as qualitative and a stagetVDe the sequence tends to hold his tasks he gave howto test the theory ex are they conserving Are they demonstrating perspective Criticisms we learn in different ways so we may hit benchmarks at different times he underestimated the younger ages in terms of what they could do today we see younger children accomplishing tasks before that age Piaget said he used small sample groups he used his own children he doesn t account for cultural factors and experiences in formal operations stage he overestimated adolescences tends to be area specific ex a child understands math first rather than language he only wanted to focus on young children Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer through adolescence and that s why he didn t expand his theory tVDicallv where we see problems is in the transition phases Piaget and education 0 Discovery learning definition little explorers trial and error giving the children resources and having them figure it out 0 Sensitivity to children s readiness to learn children have to be developmentally ready before they can learn appropriately O Developmentally appropriate practices taking age into consideration when teaching kids learn differently than adults do Teaching within Piaget s stages 0 Preoperational ages 27 0 Emphasis on clarity of directions mimickingimitation have them demonstrate play behaviors 0 Avoid helping them too much 0 Concrete operations ages 711 0 Emphasis using tangible objects because they understand their world through experiences 0 Avoid abstractions 0 Formal operations 0 Emphasis create hypotheses abstractions think through abstractions literature and symbolism novel experiences 0 Avoid Comparing the theorists Piaget Vygotsky Goals How is new knowledge created How are the tools of knowledge transmitted in a specific culture How do we share knowledge Burross H 2015 Mar 23 Chapter 2 Cognitive Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ gt Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Role of Language Social Interaction View of Learner Instructional Implications Aids in developing symbolic thought Language is a skill Does not qualitatively raise the level of intellectual functioning Provides a way to test and validate schemes Is that how you see the world Active in manipulating objects and ideas Active participant in their environment Design experiences to disrupt equilibrium Want to disrupt equilibrium to help them figure things out 0 Piaget development has to precede learning stair steps Development I learning Is an essential mechanism for thinking cultural transmission and self regulation Qualitatively raises the level of intellectual functioning Language and thought are almost interchangeable the way you think about it is how you talk about it Provides an avenue for acquiring language and the cultural exchange of ideas How learning really occurs Active in social contexts and interactions Part of the social context Provide scaffolding Guide interaction Provide scaffolding and guide social interactions 0 Vygotsky development goes with learning bimodalsymbiotic relationshipspiral Development ll Learning gt Developmental Theories Chart available on D2L under Content gt Handouts gt Dev Bur stages lt


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