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LING 253 Notes for Week 3

by: Kelsey Mulford

LING 253 Notes for Week 3 LING253

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Kelsey Mulford

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About this Document

Here's the notes for week 3 of LING 253. It covers some ways to distinguish voiceless and voiced sounds on a waveform and how to distinguish open vocal tract vs. closed vocal tract on a waveform.
Laboratory Phonetics
Thomas Parrell
Class Notes
Linguistics, sounds, phonetics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Mulford on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING253 at University of Delaware taught by Thomas Parrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
LING 253 Notes for 9/13/16 and 9/15/16 9/13/16 CLASS NOTES: Review Last week, we talked about place of articulation and manner of articulation. Moving Foreword How do our mouth gestures produce sound? Sounds are produced by: 1. The vibration of the vocal folds (ex. nasals) 2. Turbulent noise, which is the rush of air through a slit (ex. fricative) 3. The release of a cavity under high pressure (ex. stops) These all require airflow! Airflow In English, we use the lungs to produce airflow. Aerodynamics is the movement of air. For stops  The airflow starts*  The airflow stops**  The airflow is released and starts again*** To make this airflow, we need to use out bodies to create a difference in pressure. Air naturally wants to flow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. But how do we create air pressure? The Airflow Starts* If you increase or decrease the volume in a chamber, you can change the pressure. The volume is proportional to the pressure.  A decrease in volume means an increase in pressure  An increase in volume means a decrease in pressure In English, we change pressure by increasing/decreasing the volume in our lungs. Sounds made by the lungs are called pulmonic egressive sounds. When you breathe out, you increase the pressure in the lungs. This makes air want to reenter the lungs. The Airflow Stops** To stop the airflow, you bring two articulators together (ex. two lips) and then the air pressure builds up behind that closure. The Airflow is Released*** The pressure difference between the vocal fold cavity and the outside pressure of the world causes a sudden rush of air and a burst of sound But how does airflow make the vocal folds vibrate? The vocal folds must have two conditions met in order to vibrate: 1. Aerodynamic conditions- The pressure below the vocal folds must be greater than the pressure above the vocal folds so that air flows across the vocal folds to produce sound  The Bernoulli effect: When anything is moving, the faster it moves, the lower the pressure is (ex. think about blowing between two empty cans and having them come together), this shows that the pressure exerted by the particles is inversely proportional to their velocity (the lower the velocity, the lower the pressure)  But how does this work for the vocal folds? Here’s a step by step: o The vocal folds are adducted (brought together) o This seals off the trachea and the lungs o As the pressure in the mouth stays consistent, the pressure behind the vocal folds starts to rise o The pressure differential starts to exert a force that pushes against the vocal folds o Eventually, that force builds up so much that the vocal folds get pushed apart and the air starts to move out  Basically, the pressure increases, there is a high velocity of air flowing between the vocal chords, and then the pressure is decreased o After this happens, the vocal folds are then sucked back together and the pressure rises again o This will continue as long as the vocal folds are close together and flows through the vocal folds in short regular bursts 2. Laryngeal conditions- The vocal folds must be close together and cannot be too stiff  The Arytenoid Cartilages- they are shaped like pyramids and sit on the upper back edge of the cricoid cartilage and rotate (rock back and forth), they slide to adduct (bring together) or abduct (bring apart) the vocal folds  Length changes here because changes in the pitch, when the vocal folds lengthen the pitch increases  There are plenty of ways that the vocal folds can vibrate (this is more like a continuum, no real set distinctions between two types, some of these types are o Modal: Normal, everyday voice (around the 300 Hertz range), no notation needed under the sound o Creaky: Causes low frequency vibrations much lower than typical modal voice, not a lot of lengthening of the vocal chords but more compression, this causes slower vocal fold vibrations (think of the way that senior citizens talk), noted by a tilde below the sound o Harsh- caused by very strong medial compressions and very strong adductive forces, usually a symptom of disordered speech o Breathy- This is caused by very minimal adductive forces and possible space in- between the vocal folds, weak medial compression, this causes incomplete closure, this is noted by two dots under the sound o Whisper- There is a higher medial compression that breathy voice but no real closure o Falsetto- A very high voice, caused by very high longitudinal tension and adducted very forcefully  These are caused by abduction/adduction, the length of the vocal folds, the stiffness/thickness of the vocal folds, and the elevation/lowering of the larynx Voicing During Oral Closure Voiceless stops lack any voicing during interval closure. Why is that?  Voiced stops also lack voicing during closure and should be transcribed as voiceless unaspirated stops  This means that we have to true voiced stops in English  However, there is a distinction between voiceless unaspirated stops and voiced stops in Thai, meaning it is possible What has to happen for voicing to be maintained during closure?  You can maintain voicing by expanding the supralaryngeal cavity (the mouth) so that it lowers the pressure that builds up, the soft tissues of the mouth compress as the pressure builds up and helps to expand the cavity size o But is this effective for all types of compression? o No, it is more effective for sounds made more foreword in the mouth because it gives more room for the cavity to expand  If we lower the larynx, we increase the cavity which allows for oral expansion and also allows voicing to continue 8/15/16 CLASS NOTES: How do we tell when a sound is voiced or voiceless? Some things to remember:  Voicing is just vocal fold vibrations  Sound is just vibrations in the air caused by the vibrations of objects  Vibration of the air molecules in particular ways leads to areas of high pressure and areas of low pressure  We can represent these changes in pressure over time by a waveform It looks like this: Compression Compression Rarefaction A pattern of regular (repeating) vibrations helps us to identify voiced vs. voiceless sounds. If there are random up and down movements on the waveform, this shows that the sound is voiceless. The regularity of the pattern tells us if a sound is voiced or voiceless not the amplitude. Major Key: Regularity is the to determining voicing. But what about telling whether the vocal tract is open or closed? Some things to remember:  The height of a wave is related to the amplitude or the amount of change in pressure  When the vocal tract is open, it’s like you’re speaking through a megaphone because sound is amplified  This means that when the vocal tract is open, the amplitude is going to be large Major Key: Closure of the mouth is going to equal a reduced amplitude For stops, if you look for very large changes in the amplitude you can clearly see when the vocal tract closes For some sounds, there will be a decrease in amplitude but it will be significantly less than the shift caused by stops. An example of this is the [m] sound, the vocal tract is closed but has a higher amplitude than stops do. Another thing to keep in mind:  Unaspirated stops are going to have a much shorter bursts than aspirated stops


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