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Chapter 3 Notes - Teaching Your Diverse Students

by: Micah Haji-Sheikh

Chapter 3 Notes - Teaching Your Diverse Students EDU 202-2001

Marketplace > College of Southern Nevada > Education > EDU 202-2001 > Chapter 3 Notes Teaching Your Diverse Students
Micah Haji-Sheikh

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About this Document

The notes from chapter three of our textbook.
Introduction to Secondary Education
Robert Shkorupa
Class Notes
diversity, Education, Teaching, learning
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micah Haji-Sheikh on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 202-2001 at College of Southern Nevada taught by Robert Shkorupa in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Secondary Education in Education at College of Southern Nevada.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter Three - Teaching Your Diverse Students (Terms that will be on the Ch. 3/Ch.4 quiz will look like ​ his.​  Terms that will be on the  Midterm from this chapter; as they correlate with our ​Lecture and Discussion Terms  Study Sheet​ will look like ​this.​ )     I. Student Diversity  ● One in three Americans are of color.  ★ Demographic Forecasting ​ - ​  The study of people and their vital statistics.  ● You will teach in a nation more diverse than the one you grew up in.  ★ Race​ - A group of individuals sharing a common socially determined  category often related to genetic attributes, physical appearance, and  ancestry.  ★ Ethnicity​ ​- Shared common cultural traits such as language, religion, and  dress.  ★ Culture​ ​- A set of learned beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviors; a way of  life shared by members of a society.  ★ Multiracial​ -​  claiming ancestry from two or more races.                   A. Failing at Fairness  ● Population changes challenge schools, because of the increasing  mix of backgrounds and economic differences  ● “Poverty” is not a synonym for color, because most poor people are  white  ● Americans can be blind to how class differences impact society  ● Wealthier students tend to be found in schools with highly engaged  parents, and high quality teachers  ● The failure of our society to budge and honor differences among  ethnic and racial groups.    B. LGBTQIAP+  ● More and more schools are becoming more accepting of students  on the LGBT spectrum.  ● While more students are coming out earlier and more often, school  is still a war zone for some.  ○ Kids getting shot and killed for being queer  ○ Laws preventing teachers from saying the word  “homosexual”  ○ Some schools dictate homosexuality can only be presented  in a negative light.    ● By providing a safe place for all students, teachers can create  nurturing classrooms where every child can learn, and every family  is welcome.    C. Putting a Price on Racism  ❏ When you hear the word “race”, what comes to mind?  ● If you are white, heterosexual, or Christian, you have a  knapsack of hidden privileges.  ○ To be a great teacher, you need to be able to connect  and communicate with the growing student diversity  in the classroom.     D. Theories of Why Some Groups Succeed and Others Do Not  ★ Deficit Theory ​ - certain students do poorly in school because they  suffer some sort of deficit; cultural, social, economic, academic,  linguistic, or even genetic.  ○ Parenting differences as well are a factor.  ■ One of the more negative points of this theory argues  that genetic and IQ deficiencies of “certain groups”  are the root cause of academic under achievement.  ★ Expectation Theory ​ - Some children do poorly because their  teachers do not expect much of kids from certain racial and ethnic  groups.  ○ These students are being taught differently,, because of this  theory, and their performance suffers.  ★ Cultural Difference Theory ​ - Academic problems can be overcome  if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school  and home.  ○ “Triple Package”  ■ Superiority complex  ■ Inferiority complex  ■ Impulse control    E. From Melting Pot to Cultural Pluralism  ● Most people are uncomfortable talking about race and ethnicity  ● “Melting pot” was coined in a play by Israel Zangwill in 1910   ★ Assimilation (Enculturation) ​ - Groups incorporated into the  mainstream culture.  ★ Cultural Pluralism ​ - a recognition that some groups, voluntary or  involuntary, have maintained their culture and their language      II. ​Bilingual Education​ - The use of two languages for instruction.  ★ Language Submersion ​ - Students either learn to speak english, or fail the  class.  ○ If students didn’t like submersion, they could choose to leave the  school  ○ In 1968 congress provided financial incentives for schools that  provided bilingual education  ★ Lau v. Nichols ​ - Teaching students in a language they do not  understand is not appropriate education.  ■ Afterwards school districts must take positive steps to  eliminate language barriers.    A. Bilingual Education Models  ★ English Language Learners (ELLs) ​ - non english-speaking students  ○ One in five school-age children speak a language other than  english.  ○ Teachers can help ELLs transition by creating a stable  classroom environment.  ★ English as a Second Language (ESL) ​ - Supplements immersion  programs by providing special pullout classes for additional  instruction in reading and writing english.  ○ Transitional Approach ​ - Uses the native language as a  bridge to English language instruction  ■ Students are first taught in the native language, and  then transitioned into english  ■ The goal is to prepare them for english only  classrooms within two to three years.  ★ Maintenance ​ or ​Developmental Approach ​ - Designed to help  children develop academic skills both in english and their  native language.  ■ Instruction in both languages  ■ Dual-Language Instruction - students develop  cognitively, while also learning about their ethnicity  culture and history.  ● Immersion - not truly “bilingual”, as english is  used exclusively.    B. The Bilingual Controversy  ● Millions of students speak hundreds of languages, combined with  racial and ethnic differences, can lead to isolation for ELL students.  ★ English-Only Movement ​ - A belief that english is unifying, and  should be the only language used or spoken in public. The  purpose of bilingual education should be to teach english to  ELLs      C. Research on Bilingual Education  ● When students do better in studying their native language, they do  better in English as well  ● Many approaches to bilingual education can be successful  ● Students in bilingual programs have been found to outperform  students in monolingual programs.      III. Multicultural Education  ● The success of transitioning between different communities, situations,  and diversities may depend on what students learn, or do not learn in  school  ❏ How do we best teach our multicultural students?    A. The Multicultural Debate  ● People feel strongly about how diversity should be recognized in schools.  ❏ Is recognizing diversity “resegregation”?    B. Approaches to Multicultural Education  ★ Multicultural Education:​   1. Expanding the curriculum to reflect America’s diversity  2. Using teaching strategies that are responsive to different  learning styles.  3. Supporting the multicultural competence of teachers so they  are comfortable and knowledgeable working with students  and families of different cultures.  4. A commitment to social justice; promoting efforts to work  and teach toward local and global equity.  ● Human relations, single group studies,  teaching the culturally different, multicultural,  and multicultural reconstruction are all  different ways of teaching multicultural  education.    ★ James Banks ​ - believes that we should integrate and broaded the  curriculum to make it more inclusive and action oriented.  ○ Identifies four approaches to a multicultural curriculum.    ➢ Level 1.) The Contributions Approach  ■ Heroes, holidays, and discrete cultural  elements  ➢ Level 2.) The Additive Approach  ■ Content, concepts, themes, and  perspectives are added without  changing the curriculum structure.  ➢ Level 3.) The Transformation Approach  ■ The structure of the curriculum is  changed to enable students to view  concepts, issues, events, and themes  from the perspectives of diverse ethnic  and cultural groups.  ➢ Level 4.) The Social Action Approach  ■ Students make decisions on important  social issues and take actions to help  solve them.    ● Helps students develop positive attitudes and not be racist,,  sexist, homophobic, etc.       IV. ​Culturally Responsive Teaching ​ - Focuses on the learning strengths of students, and  mediates the frequent mismatch between home and school cultures.  ★ Gloria Ladson-Billings ​ - Professor at the University of Wisconsin who  developed three culturally responsive principles for teaching.     1. Students must experience academic success, which leads  to a stronger self-esteem. Esteem is built on solid academic  accomplishment.  2. Students should develop and maintain cultural competence  and the students home culture is an opportunity for learning.  3. Students must develop critical consciousness and actively  challenge social injustice.    ❏ What teaching skills, attitudes, and knowledge will  you need to be a culturally responsive teacher?    A. Stereotypes​ - Absolute beliefs that all members of a group have a fixed set  of characteristics  a. A one-piece plate that repeats a pattern with no individuality.  ● Stereotypes only hurt people, and block learning.         B. Stereotype Threat  ● Half of white america endorses stereotypes  ● Stereotypes have a devastating impact on students, by teaching  them that their intelligence is a fixed trait, that some groups are  naturally brighter than others, and their failure is determined at  birth.  ○ Do Not ignore the damage done by stereotype threat       C. ​Generalizations ​ - recognizes that there are trends over large numbers of  people.  ● Offers insights as opposed to hard conclusions.  ● Never intended to be applied to all.  ● An “educated guess”, helps to plan effective teaching methods.        V. Today’s Classroom  A. [Book Activity]  B. Diversity assets are different ways of knowing and seeing the world.  C. Teaching Skills  a. All students benefit when they feel safe, their unique needs and  interests are recognized, and they are part of classroom discourse.          D​iverse instructional Materials I​nclusive V​ariety E​xploration R​eaction S​afety E​valuation - Equitable teaching skills are effective teaching skills.  - We are One  - “Honor each other's differences.” 


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