Chapter 3 Notes - Teaching Your Diverse Students
Chapter 3 Notes - Teaching Your Diverse Students EDU 202-2001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micah Haji-Sheikh on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 202-2001 at College of Southern Nevada taught by Robert Shkorupa in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Secondary Education in Education at College of Southern Nevada.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter Three - Teaching Your Diverse Students (Terms that will be on the Ch. 3/Ch.4 quiz will look like his. Terms that will be on the Midterm from this chapter; as they correlate with our Lecture and Discussion Terms Study Sheet will look like this. ) I. Student Diversity ● One in three Americans are of color. ★ Demographic Forecasting - The study of people and their vital statistics. ● You will teach in a nation more diverse than the one you grew up in. ★ Race - A group of individuals sharing a common socially determined category often related to genetic attributes, physical appearance, and ancestry. ★ Ethnicity - Shared common cultural traits such as language, religion, and dress. ★ Culture - A set of learned beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviors; a way of life shared by members of a society. ★ Multiracial - claiming ancestry from two or more races. A. Failing at Fairness ● Population changes challenge schools, because of the increasing mix of backgrounds and economic differences ● “Poverty” is not a synonym for color, because most poor people are white ● Americans can be blind to how class differences impact society ● Wealthier students tend to be found in schools with highly engaged parents, and high quality teachers ● The failure of our society to budge and honor differences among ethnic and racial groups. B. LGBTQIAP+ ● More and more schools are becoming more accepting of students on the LGBT spectrum. ● While more students are coming out earlier and more often, school is still a war zone for some. ○ Kids getting shot and killed for being queer ○ Laws preventing teachers from saying the word “homosexual” ○ Some schools dictate homosexuality can only be presented in a negative light. ● By providing a safe place for all students, teachers can create nurturing classrooms where every child can learn, and every family is welcome. C. Putting a Price on Racism ❏ When you hear the word “race”, what comes to mind? ● If you are white, heterosexual, or Christian, you have a knapsack of hidden privileges. ○ To be a great teacher, you need to be able to connect and communicate with the growing student diversity in the classroom. D. Theories of Why Some Groups Succeed and Others Do Not ★ Deficit Theory - certain students do poorly in school because they suffer some sort of deficit; cultural, social, economic, academic, linguistic, or even genetic. ○ Parenting differences as well are a factor. ■ One of the more negative points of this theory argues that genetic and IQ deficiencies of “certain groups” are the root cause of academic under achievement. ★ Expectation Theory - Some children do poorly because their teachers do not expect much of kids from certain racial and ethnic groups. ○ These students are being taught differently,, because of this theory, and their performance suffers. ★ Cultural Difference Theory - Academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school and home. ○ “Triple Package” ■ Superiority complex ■ Inferiority complex ■ Impulse control E. From Melting Pot to Cultural Pluralism ● Most people are uncomfortable talking about race and ethnicity ● “Melting pot” was coined in a play by Israel Zangwill in 1910 ★ Assimilation (Enculturation) - Groups incorporated into the mainstream culture. ★ Cultural Pluralism - a recognition that some groups, voluntary or involuntary, have maintained their culture and their language II. Bilingual Education - The use of two languages for instruction. ★ Language Submersion - Students either learn to speak english, or fail the class. ○ If students didn’t like submersion, they could choose to leave the school ○ In 1968 congress provided financial incentives for schools that provided bilingual education ★ Lau v. Nichols - Teaching students in a language they do not understand is not appropriate education. ■ Afterwards school districts must take positive steps to eliminate language barriers. A. Bilingual Education Models ★ English Language Learners (ELLs) - non english-speaking students ○ One in five school-age children speak a language other than english. ○ Teachers can help ELLs transition by creating a stable classroom environment. ★ English as a Second Language (ESL) - Supplements immersion programs by providing special pullout classes for additional instruction in reading and writing english. ○ Transitional Approach - Uses the native language as a bridge to English language instruction ■ Students are first taught in the native language, and then transitioned into english ■ The goal is to prepare them for english only classrooms within two to three years. ★ Maintenance or Developmental Approach - Designed to help children develop academic skills both in english and their native language. ■ Instruction in both languages ■ Dual-Language Instruction - students develop cognitively, while also learning about their ethnicity culture and history. ● Immersion - not truly “bilingual”, as english is used exclusively. B. The Bilingual Controversy ● Millions of students speak hundreds of languages, combined with racial and ethnic differences, can lead to isolation for ELL students. ★ English-Only Movement - A belief that english is unifying, and should be the only language used or spoken in public. The purpose of bilingual education should be to teach english to ELLs C. Research on Bilingual Education ● When students do better in studying their native language, they do better in English as well ● Many approaches to bilingual education can be successful ● Students in bilingual programs have been found to outperform students in monolingual programs. III. Multicultural Education ● The success of transitioning between different communities, situations, and diversities may depend on what students learn, or do not learn in school ❏ How do we best teach our multicultural students? A. The Multicultural Debate ● People feel strongly about how diversity should be recognized in schools. ❏ Is recognizing diversity “resegregation”? B. Approaches to Multicultural Education ★ Multicultural Education: 1. Expanding the curriculum to reflect America’s diversity 2. Using teaching strategies that are responsive to different learning styles. 3. Supporting the multicultural competence of teachers so they are comfortable and knowledgeable working with students and families of different cultures. 4. A commitment to social justice; promoting efforts to work and teach toward local and global equity. ● Human relations, single group studies, teaching the culturally different, multicultural, and multicultural reconstruction are all different ways of teaching multicultural education. ★ James Banks - believes that we should integrate and broaded the curriculum to make it more inclusive and action oriented. ○ Identifies four approaches to a multicultural curriculum. ➢ Level 1.) The Contributions Approach ■ Heroes, holidays, and discrete cultural elements ➢ Level 2.) The Additive Approach ■ Content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added without changing the curriculum structure. ➢ Level 3.) The Transformation Approach ■ The structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspectives of diverse ethnic and cultural groups. ➢ Level 4.) The Social Action Approach ■ Students make decisions on important social issues and take actions to help solve them. ● Helps students develop positive attitudes and not be racist,, sexist, homophobic, etc. IV. Culturally Responsive Teaching - Focuses on the learning strengths of students, and mediates the frequent mismatch between home and school cultures. ★ Gloria Ladson-Billings - Professor at the University of Wisconsin who developed three culturally responsive principles for teaching. 1. Students must experience academic success, which leads to a stronger self-esteem. Esteem is built on solid academic accomplishment. 2. Students should develop and maintain cultural competence and the students home culture is an opportunity for learning. 3. Students must develop critical consciousness and actively challenge social injustice. ❏ What teaching skills, attitudes, and knowledge will you need to be a culturally responsive teacher? A. Stereotypes - Absolute beliefs that all members of a group have a fixed set of characteristics a. A one-piece plate that repeats a pattern with no individuality. ● Stereotypes only hurt people, and block learning. B. Stereotype Threat ● Half of white america endorses stereotypes ● Stereotypes have a devastating impact on students, by teaching them that their intelligence is a fixed trait, that some groups are naturally brighter than others, and their failure is determined at birth. ○ Do Not ignore the damage done by stereotype threat C. Generalizations - recognizes that there are trends over large numbers of people. ● Offers insights as opposed to hard conclusions. ● Never intended to be applied to all. ● An “educated guess”, helps to plan effective teaching methods. V. Today’s Classroom A. [Book Activity] B. Diversity assets are different ways of knowing and seeing the world. C. Teaching Skills a. All students benefit when they feel safe, their unique needs and interests are recognized, and they are part of classroom discourse. Diverse instructional Materials Inclusive Variety Exploration Reaction Safety Evaluation - Equitable teaching skills are effective teaching skills. - We are One - “Honor each other's differences.”