Psychology 1101 Notes: Week 5
Psychology 1101 Notes: Week 5 Psyc 1101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle H. on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Psychology 1101 Notes: Week 5 Perception: The process of recognizing, organizing, and interpreting information from your senses. ● Based on a person’s past experiences and expectations ● Perception is not an exact copy of the world, ○ perceptions vary between individuals ○ Perceptions can change over time Constancies: Information learned by an individual that help to shape perceptions. There are three main forms of constancy that we experience. ● Size Constancy: Your perception of size will not change even if you move closer or farther from the object. ● Shape Constancy: The perceived shape of objects doesn’t change, even if the angle you view the object from changes. ● Color Constancy: Colors are perceived as the same, regardless of lighting and other environmental factors. Gestalt Principles: The method in which we are able to perceive whether or not two stimuli are the same object or separate objects. ● For example, this allows us to perceive that our mug is not connected to our table, or that the mug and table are separate objects. ● Law of Proximity: We tend to perceive objects that are near each other as a unit. ○ Book image ● Law of Similarity: We see objects as a group if they share similar features, such as color or shape. ○ Book image ● Law of Connectedness: Objects are seen as group if they are connected in some way. ○ Book imahe ● Law of Continuity: If multiple objects appear to be moving in the same direction, the are perceived as a group ○ Book Image ● Law of Closure: We are able to fill in incomplete parts of a line or figure. ○ Book image ● Law of Common Fate: Objects that move together are perceived as the same object. Depth Perception: Our ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ● There are two main cues that allow us to perceive depth: ○ Monocular Cues: ■ Linear Percpective: We see two parallel lines as converging as they move farther away from us ■ Relative Size: Objects closer to us are larger than objects that are farther away. ■ Texture Gradient: The texture of objects becomes finer the farther away they are. ■ Interposition: If an object is blocking part of another object, we perceive it as being closer to us. ■ Atmospheric Perspective: Objects that appear farther away from you are not as sharp, or look more “hazy" ○ Binocular Cues: ■ Convergence: The angle that your eyes rotate to focus on an objects is much greater the closer the object is. ■ This means that your eyes have to rotate more to see closer objects. ■ Retinal Disparity: Since your eyes are separated, an object is seen at different positions on each eye. ■ Objects that are farther away are seen in roughly the same place in both eyes. The disparity of objects is greater the closer they are to you. Consciousness: The state of being aware of oneself, one’s thoughts, or the environment around someone ● In theory, you are conscious while you are asleep as you are still able to react to the environment. For example, you can hear your alarm go off. ● If you don’t remember events, you were still conscious during that period. You were able to perceive yourself and the environment during that perion Automatic Processing: When decisions are made with little to no conscious effort ● For example, you can understand each word you’re reading right now without having to consciously recognize what shapes make up each letter. Selective Attention: The ability to focus on only one stream of information but ignore others. ● If you’re studying, you’re using selective attention to ignore everything else going on in your environment. Inattention Blindness: The failure to notice a fully visible, yet unexpected stimuli. ● When you focus on a certain stimuli, all other information you receive from the environment is filtered to the “background,” making events that occur there less noticeable. Levels of Consciousness ● Wakefulness ● Sleepiness ● Druginduced state ● Dreaming ○ Occurs within sleep ● Hypnotic State ● Meditative state. Sleep Deprivation ● Deterioration of physical and mental wellbeing ○ Cognitive abilities ■ Memory ■ Attention ■ Reaction time ■ Decision Making ○ Irritability ○ Micro sleeps REM Deprivation ● REM Rebound Effect: When you fail to spend enough time in REM sleep, our body will go into REM faster and spend more time in REM in an attempt to compensate.
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