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Cell Production and Inheritance

by: Amber Notetaker

Cell Production and Inheritance Biology 1010k

Marketplace > Georgia Highlands College > Science > Biology 1010k > Cell Production and Inheritance
Amber Notetaker

GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our next exam
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Tom Harnden
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1010k at Georgia Highlands College taught by Dr. Tom Harnden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Science at Georgia Highlands College.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
Cell Production and Inheritance ONLY A cell will undergo cell division to…LLUL AR a) Replace dead cells b) Repair damaged tissue c) Grow The Cell Cycle Interphase Interphase has 3 phases 1) G1: The cell grows and produces tRNA, mRNA, ribosomes, enzymes, and other cell components 2) S: DNA Synthesis > DNA replicates itself  Single-stranded chromosomes form double- stranded chromosomes  Sister Chromatid: Each strand of a double- stranded chromosome  Centromere: Holds chromatids together  Histones: Chromosomal proteins that the double-stranded helix of each DNA strand is wrapped around 3) G2: The cell prepares for division by making the necessary p*In brain and nerve cells: G₀: Mitotic Dormancy* How to Remember Mitosis M Phase Phases: Ralph, In Peru Men Always M itosis orM eiosis takes place here Teach Chemistry Mitosis R – Replicate Interphase  Identical nuclear division A – Appear Prophase  Very Rapid  Occurs in Eukaryotic organisms L – Line up  Composed of 4 phases Metaphase P – Pull Apart Mitosis Phases Anaphase 1) Prophase H – Half and Hide Telophase & - Nuclear membrane breaks down Cytokinesis - Double-stranded chromosomes condense and become visible - Spindle fibers (microtubules) form *In animal cells: Centrioles move to the poles* 2) Metaphase - Middle” - Double-stranded chromosomes line up in the middle of cell (Equatorial Plane) - Spindle fibers attach to the centromere 3) Anaphase -“Apart” - Chromatids separate - Single-stranded chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell 4) Telophase - Reverse of Prophase - Nuclear membrane reforms - Single-stranded chromosomes become uncondensed and disappear - Spindle fibers break down - Cytokinesis: Cytoplasmic division begins - Plant cells: produce cell plate between two daughter cells - Animal cells: Undergo cleavage furrow or “pinching in” Results of Mitosis - 2 daughter cells - The daughter cells are identical to the parent cell in chromosome number Meiosis  Reduction Nuclear division  Results in genetically different individuals  Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis  Produces sex cells  Reduction ensures that the original chromosome number is  Reduction is achieved by separating homologous pairs, followed by separation of chromatids Phases of Meiosis Meiosis I 1) Prophase I -Nuclear membrane breaks down - Double-stranded chromosomes condense and become visible - Spindle fibers (microtubules) form - Homologous pairs come together - Homologous pairs undergo Synapsis: Become entwined - Crossing over: (Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes) occurs 2) Metaphase I -Homologous pairs line up in the middle of cell - Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres 3) Anaphase I -Homologous pairs separate - Half of the double-stranded chromosome moves to each end of the cell 4) Telophase I - Nuclear membrane reforms - Double-stranded chromosome becomes uncondensed and disappears - Spindle fibers break down - Cytokinesis: Results in 2 daughter cells with ½ the chromosome number compared to the parent cell  Cleavage furrow or cell plate formation  Daughter cells either remain dormant or immediately enter meiosis II Meiosis II *No Interphase II because the chromosomes don’t need to go under DNA replication…they’re still double-stranded* 1) Prophase I - Nuclear membrane breaks down - Double-stranded chromosomes condense and become visible - Spindle fibers form 2) Metaphase II - Double-stranded chromosomes line up in the middle of cell (Equatorial Plane) - Spindle fibers attach to the centromere 3) Anaphase II - Chromatids separate - Single-stranded chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell 4) Telophase II - Nuclear membrane breaks down - Single-stranded chromosomes become uncondensed and disappear - Spindle fibers break down - Cytokinesis results in 4 total daughter cells that contain ½ the chromosome number as the parent cell *If fertilization occurs, the zygote will have the same number of chromosomes as the parents* Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis How to remember the  Occurs in somatic cells Difference between Mitosis  Occurs in sex cells to for growth, produce sperm and egg and Meiosis replacement, and repair for reproduction  Results in 2 daughter Meiosis has an ‘E’ in it: E for  Results in 4 daughter cell with identical egg, as in a sex cell cells that are ½ the chromosome number chromosome number compared to parent compared to the parent cells cells  Very little genetic  Large amounts of diversity genetic diversity  OneSpermatogenesis  Two divisions  Doe- Primary Spermatocytes: contain 46 chromosomes  Synapsis is frequent - Primary Spermatocytes: divide during Meiosis I > Form two secondary Spermatocytes - Secondary Spermatocytes: contain 23 double-stranded chromosomes (each) - Secondary Spermatocytes: divide during Meiosis II > Form four Spermatids - Spermatids: Contain 23 Single-stranded chromosomes - Spermatids: Mature to Sperm - Spermatogenesis: Begins at puberty, and contSpermatogenesist lifetime Primary Spermatocyte Secondary Spermatocyte Secondary Spermatocyte Spermatid Spermatid Spermatid Spermatid Sperm Sperm Sperm Oogenesis - Primary Oocytes: contain 46 chromosomes - Primary Oocytes: Divide in Meiosis I > Form Secondary Oocyte and a polar body (which disintegrates) - Secondary Oocyte: receives almost all cytoplasm - Secondary Oocyte: contains 23 double-stranded chromosomes - This meiotic division occurs before the female is ever born, and will never undergo this process again. Everything a woman does can affect her egg supply. - Secondary oocyte: begin meiosis II but stop at metaphase II - At puberty, one secondary oocyte per month is released into the fallopian tube during the menstrual cycle - If secondary oocyte is fertilized > it completes meiosis II > produces a second polar body and a mature egg, called an ovum. Abnormal Cell Division Environmental Factors a) Radiation: x-rays, radon, UV light (sunlight) b) Organic chemicals: nicotine, pesticides, MSGs c) Viruses: Polio, German measles, chicken pox - Teratogens cause mutations in cell’s DNA - The p53 gene prevents mutations from causing problems - P53 stops cell from dividing, so the mutated DNA can be repaired - If cell can’t be fixed > p53 causes Apoptosis: programed cell death - In some mutations, p53 activity is affected, or is deleted from cell’s DNA - If p53 is missing or defected > No repair or No Apoptosis - If p53 is missing or defected > cell divides uncontrollably - Cell dividing uncontrollably > Tumor: mass of undifferentiated cells - Normal cells divide 50 times a day - Tumor cells continuously divide forever - Benign Tumor: cell masses don’t spread beyond original area - Malignant Tumor: cell masses spread beyond original area - Cancer: Tumor has potential to become malignant Cancer - Surgery: removes growing tumor - Chemotherapy: chemicals and drugs destroy cancer cells - Radiation: X-rays or gamma rays induce apoptosis Sources of Genetic Diversity Independent Assortment of homologous chromosomes results in 23 8,388,608 or 2 possible gametes - Fertilization results in 70,368,744,000,000 possible offspring since both 23 223 2 the man and woman can produce different gametes ( ¿¿2 - Crossing-over during prophase produces four daughter chromosomes for each type of chromosome - If you take that into account > the number of possible offspring is 4 4,951,760,200,000,000,000,000,000,000, (¿¿23)2 ¿


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