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Chapter 5 Notes

by: Savannah Alberty

Chapter 5 Notes PSY2012

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Savannah Alberty
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This is a combination of class notes & textbook notes. This will be helpful for the next Quest!
General Psychology
Ukonu, Nwakaego
Class Notes
general, Psychology, psy2012




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Alberty on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Ukonu, Nwakaego in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 5 Consciousness Sleep Paralysis- State of being unable to move just after falling asleep or right before waking up. It is often associated with feeling anxiety or terror; feeling vibrations; hearing humming; or sensing a menacing presence in the room. Consciousness- Our subjective experience of the world and ourselves. (ex. Sleep Paralysis is one example of an alteration of normal consciousness.) It encompasses our ever-changing awareness of thought, emotions, bodily sensations, events, and actions. -Alien abductions, Research shows most “abductees” report a history of sleep paralysis. Biology of Sleep -We spend as much as 1/3 of our lives sleeping. Circadian Rhythms- “circadian” is Latin for “about a day”. Are cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24-hour basis. Biological processes like hormone release, body temperature occur during circadian rhythm. It is regulated by neurons in the hypothalamus and triggers our sense of fatigue via increasing melatonin. Also known as the brain’s biological clock (term for the area of the hypothalamus that’s responsible for controlling our levels of alertness. -Disruptions of circadian rhythms (jet lag, late shifts) can cause numerous health problems. (Newborns- 16 hours, College students- 9 hours, Most people- 7-10 hours, People with DEC2 genetic mutation- 6 hours or less.) -Building up on sleep debt can have numerous negative consequences (ex. weight gain, depression, increased risk for cardiovascular problems, decreased immune system) Stages of Sleep- We cycle through five stages of sleep in 90 a minute cycle; Stage 1-4 (Non REM)- no rapid eye movements, fewer dreams. Stage 5 (REM) Sleep- vivid dreams  Stage 1 (5-10 minutes): Characterized as light sleep. Theta waves- occur when the brain powers down to about 50%. Hypnagogic imagery (scrambled, bizarre, and dream like images that flit in and out of consciousness) & Myoclonic jerks (sudden jerks of our limbs as if being startled or falling).  Stage 2 (10-30 minutes): our brain waves slow down even more. Brain begins to enter into a deep stage of sleep. Sudden intense bursts of electrical activity called Sleep spindles (sudden bursts of electrical energy & K-complexes. As much as 65% of total sleep.) of about 12-14 cycles a second, and occasional sharply rising and falling waves known as K-complexes.  Stages 3 and 4 (15-30 minutes): Deep sleep. Delta waves, crucial to feel rested; suppressed by alcohol, about 40% of sleep in children; 25% in adults. To feel fully rested in the morning, we need to experience these deeper stages of sleep throughout the night.  Stage 5 (REM Sleep; 10-20 minutes): Brain activity increase and goes into higher gear, with high frequency, low-amplitude waves resembling those of wakefulness. This stage is known as REM sleep (stage of sleep during which the brain is most active and during which vivid dreaming most often occurs. Increased heart rate and blood pressure, as well as rapid and irregular breathing, a state that occupies about 20 to 25 percent of our night’s sleep. Each night we circle back to REM sleep five or six times. NREM Dreams- Shorter, more thought-like, repetitive, concerned with daily tasks. Also called Paradoxical sleep as bodies are paralyzed but brains are active. REM Rebound- occurs when we don’t get rest well for several nights. REM Dreams- More dreams occurs and they involve emotional, illogical, and shifts in plot. Lucid Dreaming- sleep and wake may not be as distinct as once thought. It occurs when you know that a dream is a dream. Some report being able to control dreams, may help with nightmares, no other problems. Many lucid dreamers become aware they’re dreaming when they see something so bizarre or improbable that they conclude that they are dreaming Sleep disorders- widespread and costly problem, $35 billion/year cost. 30- 50% of population experiences sleep disorders at some point.  Insomnia- most common sleep disorder (10-15% of people). Difficulty going to, staying asleep, or early waking. High rates in conjunction with depression, pain, and medical conditions. Beating insomnia (Do: Hide clocks, sleep in cool room, regular schedule & Don’t: Drink caffeine, take naps, read in bed, watch TV/use computer before bed)  Narcolepsy- Is the rapid and unexpected onset of sleep. Some can experience cataplexy (quick onset of sleep and a complete loss of muscle tone) as well and due to lack of orexin (neuropeptide) production. These sudden bouts of sleep last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes and, less frequently, as long as an hour. Those who experience this enter into REM sleep immediately.  Sleep Apnea- It is caused by the blockage of the airway during sleep. May wake briefly hundreds of times per night, causing fatigue and other health problems. It afflicts between 2 and 20 percent of the general population, depending on how broadly our narrowly its defined. It causes people to snore loudly, gasp, and sometimes stop breathing for more than 20 seconds. This disorder is associated with being overweight, so the first suggestion given by most doctors is weight loss as a first treatment.  Night Terrors- Sudden waking episodes characterized by screaming, perspiring, and confusion followed by a return to a deep sleep. They are exclusively associated in non-REM sleep. They are most common in children; harmless.  Sleepwalking and Sexsomnia- Sleepwalking is an act like any fully awake person, although a sleepwalker may be somewhat clumsier. It almost always occurs during non-REM sleep. Whereas sexsomnia is when people engage in sexual acts while asleep and don’t remember what occurred after they wake up. Occurs in 15-30% of children and 3- 5% of adults. Dreams- Unsure exactly why we dream but involved in: (Processing emotional memories, integrating new experiences with established memories, learning new strategies and ways of doing things). Stimulating threatening events so we can better cope with the in everyday life and reorganizing and consolidating memories. It is a virtually universal experience and virtually all of us experience dreams that contain more aggression than friendliness, more negative than positive emotions, and more misfortune than good fortune. The function of dreams remains a puzzle because research evidence concerning the role of learning and memory in dreams is mixed.  Freud’s Dream Protection Theory- He sided with the Native Americans. In his landmark book, Interpretation of Dreams (1900) he describes dreams as the guardians of sleep. During sleep, the ego, which acts as sort of mental censor, is less able than when awake to keep sexual and aggressive instincts at bay by repressing them. Dreams transform our sexual and aggressive instincts into symbols that represent wish fulfillment. These require interpretation to reveal their true meaning, latent vs. manifest. Latent Content- The dreams hidden meaning. Manifest Content- He distinguished between the details of the dream itself. It has been rejected by most scientists due to a lack of evidence: (most dreams are negative in content, very few people have sexual dreams, straightforward dream content, post- trauma nightmares)  Activation Synthesis Theory- Alan Hobson and Robert McCarley developed activation synthesis theory, which purposes that dreams reflect brain activation in sleep, rather than repressed unconscious wishes, as Freud claimed. They claim that dreams reflect the activated brain’s attempt to make sense of random and internally generated neural signals during REM sleep. It reflects inputs from brain activation originating in the pons, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story. The net result of these complex brain changes is what we experience as a dream, which may bear slim to no relation to our everyday. Emphasizes role of forebrain in dreaming, damage to forebrain can eliminate dreams completely, even if the pons in intact, dreams are consistent over time, not random as AST would expect.)  Neurocognitive Theory- Theory that dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about. Dreams are meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about. This is why dreams of adults are more complex than those of children. According to the neurocognitive perspective, complex dreams are cognitive achievements that parallel the gradual development of visual imagination and other advanced cognitive abilities. Alterations in Consciousness  Hallucinations are realistic perceptual experiences in the absence of external stimuli. Brain activities in the same way of hallucinations as for “real” sensory experiences. Quite normal: 10-35% of people report having had at least one. Visual hallucinations can be brought on by oxygen and sensory deprivation.  Out of Body- Experience is the sense that our consciousness has left our body. More commonly reported by those who have other unusual experiences. A scrambling of sensory information, not actually leaving the body, may be the reason.  Near Death Experiences- Are OBEs reported by people who’ve nearly died or thought they were going to die. Differ cross culturally, in response to expectations about the afterlife. Can be experimentally triggered via stimulation of temporal lobes and other means.  Déjà vu- Is the feeling of reliving an experience that is actually new. Very common; up to 2/3 of people experience at least one episode. May be due to seizures; events resembling past events; or unconscious processing.  Mystical Experiences- Involve a sense of unity or oneness with the world. Often religions in nature, and can be induced via fasting, seizures, prayer, or hallucinogenic drugs. These experiences are often difficult to put into words.  Hypnosis- A set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Typically, an induction method is use which includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being, along with instructions to imagine or think about pleasant experiences. Widely used to help treat pain, obesity, anxiety, ad habit disorders. 15-20% if people are in high suggestibility; another 15-20% are low suggestibility. Myths:  (1) Produces a trance state in which “amazing” things happen. (Doesn’t have great impact on suggestibility. Doesn’t turn people into mindless robots)  (2) Hypnotic phenomena are unique. No biological difference between hypnosis and wakefulness  (3) It is like a sleeplike state (not biologically similar to sleep)  (4) People are fully aware of their surroundings and what happened during hypnosis  (5) People forget what happened during hypnosis (rare and mostly limited to people who expect to be amnesic following hypnosis)  (6) Hypnosis enhances memories (increase amount we recall, but much of it is inaccurate) (does increase confidence by eyewitness). Each of these theories has contributed valuable insights into hypnotic phenomena. Sociocognitive Theory- Hypnosis is the same way they explain everyday social behaviors. According to this theory, people’s attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and expectations about hypnosis, as well as their ability to respond to waking imaginative suggestions, shape their responses to hypnosis. People’s expectations of whether they’ll respond to hypnotic suggestions are correlated with how they respond. Past life regression therapy- Therapeutic approach that hypnotizes and supposedly age-regresses patients to a previous life to identify the source of a present day problem. Dissociation Theory- It is an influential alternative to sociocognitive theories of hypnosis. Approach to explaining hypnosis based on a separation between personality functions that are normally well integrated. It is defined as a dissociation as a division of consciousness, in which attention, effort, and planning are carried out without awareness. Drugs & Consciousness Psychoactive drugs- Substance that contains chemicals similar to those found naturally in our brains that alter consciousness by changing chemical processes in neurons.  Depressants- Alcohol, barbiturates, Quaaludes, Valium. Decreased activity of the central nervous system (initial high followed by sleepiness, slower thinking, and impaired concentration). These depress the function of the central nervous system by the way of sedative means “calming” and hypnotic means “sleep-inducing”. Alcohol depresses area dos the brain that inhibit emotion and behavior. The setting or social context in which people consume alcohol also influences its effects. Misconceptions of Alcohol - Every time we drink, we destroy about 10,000 brain cells (Scientists haven’t exactly determined the effect if a single drink on brain cell loss. Heavy drinking over time is associated with brain damage and memory problems.) - It’s okay to drive a few hours after drinking (Coordination can be affected as much as 10-12 hours after drinking, so it is not safe to drink and drive.) - To avoid a hangover, take two or three acetaminophen tablets, a common alternative to aspirin, or an energy drink with caffeine (Taking acetaminophen tablets can increase the toxicity of alcohol to the liver. Energy drinks do not affect blood alcohol levels and increase the likelihood of binge drinking three fold) - Our judgement isn’t impaired until we’re extremely drunk (Impaired judgement can occur well before obvious signs of intoxication appear) - A “blackout” is passing out from drinking (A “blackout” is a loss of memory for a period of time while drunk, and has nothing to do with passing out.) - Mixing diet drinks with alcohol reduces the risk of intoxications (Mixing diet soda with alcohol increases breath alcohol concentrations by 18%, increasing the risk of intoxication)  Stimulants- Tobacco, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines. Increased activity of the central nervous system (sense of alertness, well-being, energy)  Opiates- Heroin, Morphine, Codeine. Sense of euphoria, decreased pain)  Psychedelics- Marijuana, LSD, ecstasy (Dramatically altered perception, mood, and thoughts) Tolerance- A key feature of substance use disorders, occurs when people need to consume an increased amount of a drug to achieve intoxication. Reduction in the effect of a drug as a result of repeated use, requiring users to consume greater quantities to achieve the same effect as normal. Withdrawal- Unpleasant effects of reducing or stopping consumption of a drug that users had consumed habitually. (ex. alcohol withdrawal symptoms can range from insomnia and mild anxiety to more severe symptoms such as seizures, confusion, and bizarre visual hallucinations) Physical Dependence- Dependence on a drug that occurs when people continue to take it to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Psychological Dependence- Dependence on a drug that occurs when continued use of a drug is motivated by intense cravings. Sociocultural Influences- Attribute these differences to cultural difference in attitudes toward alcohol and its abuse. Nevertheless, these differences could also be due in part to genetic influences, and the cultural attitudes themselves may reflect these differences. The idea of an addictive personality comes into play when questioning whether people do so more many reasons. Genetic Influences- Researchers have uncovered a genetic link between people’s response to alcohol and their risk of developing alcoholism. Stimulants- A drug that increases activity in the central nervous system, including heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.  Nicotine- It is a potent and addictive drug and reaches the brain after 10 seconds of inhalation. It activates receptors sensitive to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and smokers often report feelings of stimulation as well as relaxation and alertness. It can enhance positive emotional reactions and minimize negative emotional reactions, including the distress experienced when the nicotine level drops.  Cocaine- Most powerful natural stimulant. Users commonly report euphoria, enhanced mental and physical capacity, stimulation, a decrease in hunger, indifference to pain, and a sense of well-being accompanied by diminished fatigue. It is a powerful enforcer that increases the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and perhaps serotonin, which contribute to its reinforcing effects.  Amphetamines- Most commonly abused of all drugs, with 37% of Americans trying them at least once by age 50. - In pattern one involves occasional use of small doses of oral to postpone fatigue, elevate mood while performing an unpleasant task, cram for a test, or experience well-being. - In pattern two users obtain from a doctor, but ingest them on a regular basis for euphoria producing effects rather than for their prescribed purpose. - In pattern three is associated with speed users who are addicted to it and inject large doses to achieve a rush effect. In recent years’ methamphetamine, a drug closely related chemically to amphetamines, has emerged as a widely abused drug. It is known as crystal meth and is extremely addictive. Narcotics- Drug that relieves pain and induces sleep. (Heroin, morphine, and codeine) Psychedelics- “Hallucinogenic” because they can produce dramatic alterations in perception, mood, and thought.  Marijuana- Most frequently used illegal drug in the US. People experience a “high” feeling within a few minutes, which peaks within a half hour. Sense of time slowing down, enhanced sensations of touch, increased appreciation for sounds, hunger, feelings of well-being, and a tendency to giggle. But symptoms vary upon about.  LSD & Other hallucinogens- Its affects stem from its interference with the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin at the synapse. The affects are also associated with areas of the brain rich in receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine. It can produce dramatic shifts in our perception and consciousness. But on the negative side they can also produce panic, paranoid delusions, confusion, depression, and bodily discomfort


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