PSY100: week 3 class notes 9/13/16
PSY100: week 3 class notes 9/13/16 PSY 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 3: Sensations and perceptions Sensation the detection and basic sensory experience of environmental stimuli sounds, images, odors Perceptions the process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations Sensation How do our senses work o Sensation is the result of the stimulation of specialized cells, called sensory receptors by some form of energy o Sensory receptors stimulation of specialized cells by some form of energy Converts physical energy into electrical impulses that are transmitted through neurons to the brain Sensory thresholds o 2 subdivisions of thresholds Absolute threshold smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time Difference threshold smallest possible difference of two stimuli that can be detected half the time This odd “detected half the time” that appears in the definitions is due to individual differences Weber’s law o Principle of sensation that says the size of the just noticeable difference will vary depending on the strength of the original stimulus o Psychological experience of sensation is relative Sensory adaptation o Refers to gradual decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus Vision receptor cells in the retina respond to light waves allowing us to see o The eye Retina contains the sensory receptors Rods more sensitive to light and responsible for vision in dim light Cones detects color and is responsible for color vision and visual acuity Optic nerve carries visual information to the brain Theories of color vision o Trichromatic theory 3 types of cones Sensitive to red, green, or blue o Opponent process theory 3 types of color receptors Redgreen, blueyellow, lightdark (stimulated and inhibited) Hearing sound waves travel through layers of the ear o The ear Shaped and structured to capture sound waves Outer ear collects sound waves Middle ear amplifies the sound waves collected Inner ear sound waves are converted into neural impulses o Pitch the highness or lowness of a sound Frequency number of sound waves per second Expressed in hertz o Loudness the intensity of a sound Height (amplitude) of sound waves Expressed in decibels (dB) Theories of hearing/audition o Place theory o Frequency theory the basilar membrane vibrates at the same frequency of the sound wave Basilar membrane membrane in the part of the cochlea that contains hair cells Smell o Odors trigger receptor neurons in olfactory membrane Odors are sample molecules of substances in the air o Sensory info about odors is sent to the brain through the olfactory nerve o Olfaction sensation of smell Olfaction bulb enlarged ending of olfactory cortex where sensation of smell is registered Only sense that goes directly to brain One minute to habituate to a smell Close to memory Taste o 5 basic: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami (savory) Taste buds sensory receptors for taste, located on the tongue and inside the mouth and throat Vestibular sense sense of balance Skin senses o Tactile pertaining to sense of touch o Pain physical discomfort that can vary in degrees of intensity o Sensory receptors in skin for when skin surface is touched o Some areas of the body are more sensitive Pain o Nociceptors sensory receptors found in the skin, muscles, and internal organs o Substance P neurotransmitters that transfers messages of pain to the brain Gate control theory of pain relays patterns of intense stimulation to the brain through spinal gates o Nervous system can only process a limited amount of stimulation, how the brain interprets the pain experience Pain reduction CAM (complementary alternative medicine) Perception Refers to the process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory information Goal of top down and bottom up processing is to help us organize perceptual information o Top down processing information processing on the importance of observers knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive processes o Bottom up processing information processing on the importance in detecting the features of a stimulus in recognizing a whole pattern Gestalt psychology states that our sensations are actively processed by constant perceptual rules that result in meaningful whole perceptions (gestalts) o Founded in Germany by psychologist Max Wetheimer Figure ground relationship states that when looking at something we separate elements of perceptions that clearly stand out and its less distinct background o Figures feature that clearly stands out o Ground the features less distinct background Figure ground reversal is the perception of a single image in 2 different ways The law of Pragnanz (law of simplicity) states that when many visuals are possible the interpretation we see is the “best, simplest, and most stable shape” Depth perception the ability to tell the distance of an object and its characteristics o Monocular cues the use of one eye to determine an objects distance o Binocular cues the use of both eyes to determine an objects distance Perception of motion o Follow moving objects with our gaze o Muscles of the eyes make adjustments to keep the object in focus Perceptual constancy perceiving familiar objects as constant or unchanging, even if they do change o Size consistency perceiving an object as always staying the same size o Shape consistency perceiving familiar objects as always staying the same shape Perceptual illusion the misperception of the actual characteristics of an object o MullerLyer illusion the misperception of two lines identical in length, one with arrows pointed inward and one with arrows pointed outward o Moon illusion the misperception that the moon is larger when it’s on the horizon than when it’s overhead Perceptual set tendency to perceive objects from a particular time of reference
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