Biology Week 4 Notes 9/13-9/19
Biology Week 4 Notes 9/13-9/19 BIOL 107-06
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Week 4: 9/139/19 Biology Lecture 4: Cell Membranes Permeability ● Permeability is how easily/fast molecules can go from one side to the other (usually small, nonpolar, uncharged molecules can easily cross a bilipid membrane) ● Hydrocarbon chains that are unsaturated with short chains have a high permeability ● If temperature increases, so will permeability Diffusion ● Diffusion is movement of molecules and ions that result from their kinetic energy ● Concentration gradient is the difference in solute concentration ● There is a net movement from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration ● Chemical equilibrium is when the molecules are equally distributed throughout the solution ● Temperature speeds up diffusion Osmosis ● Osmosis (special case of diffusion): movement of water and holds back solutes (selectively permeable) ● Hypotonic fewer solutes inside the membrane, so water moves out of the vesicle and therefore the vesicle shrinks ● Hypertonicmore solutes inside the membrane, so water moves in of the vesicle, causing it to swell ● Isotonic inside and outside have equal solute concentrations Membrane Proteins ● Proteins can be amphipathic (polar and charged amino acids residues are hydrophilic and the nonpolar residues are hydrophobic) ● Integral membrane protein: goes through the actual membrane Week 4: 9/139/19 ● Peripheral membrane protein: simply bound to the membrane Facilitated Diffusion via Protein Channels ● Ion channels: specialized membrane channels ● Ions move through these channels from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration ● Electrochemical gradient: ions move in response to a combined concentration of electrical gradient ● Gated channels Channels that are carefully controlled ● Passive transport is powered by diffusion Facilitated Diffusion via Carrier Proteins ● Carrier proteins are specialized membrane proteins that change shape during the transport process ● They cross through the membrane by diffusion Pumps and Active Transport ● Active transport Used to transport molecules against electrochemical gradient ● Needs energy to work against the gradient ● Helps move things back to “before” conditions
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