Personality Week 2
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eileen artigas on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLPS 0701 at Brown University taught by Professor Hayden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
The Building Blocks of Personality A lot of theorists don't refer back to these variables which are very important Very few theorists ever addressed those particular issues Genetics Environment Race Ethnicity Gender Culture Creativity Memory James brothers at one point lived in Newport. One of the brothers, William James, philosopher first recognized psychologists, Henry James novelist "The Principles of Psychology"- very successful One turning place or two- an epiphany, something happens to us, the experience sets us on a trajectory begins to shape who you are, its at this turning point we begin to catch truth William James signed up with confederates for 90 days but then 3 years, father hated American education, boys home- schooled, there was a fire in Newport, rushed off to put out flames, part of the pump fell over and injured Henry, for the rest of his life he suffered from back pain, insomnia, neurotic, celibate Because of this event William's father decided he could go to Harvard Both boys highly sensitive to psychological issues GENETICS 23 pairs of chromosomes, thousands of genes, can vary in size, genes made up of DNA (2 long strands of 4 mucleotides), genes produce enzymes and over 60,000 proteins Benzer '99 Probabily all human variability due to genetics Believed genetics was THE major building block of personality Benzer's fruit flies or the extensively folded cortex Fruit flies- Life cycle about 30 days Was able to identify specific genes, one of which was longevity, modified that particular gene, able to live 90 days, particular sex gene, you could have male fruit flies attracted to (did a dance) with both male and female fruit flies, Greenfield ;97 Student working with Benzer Neurobiologist in oxford Instead of looking at particular gene, look at complexity of cortex 2/3 of which we can't see, convolution and folds within the brain Individuals go beyond the predestination determined by certain genes ENVIRONMENT How do we look at this complex relationship between nature and nurture? Teasing out to what extent genetics can account for similar behavior Different environments- indiv, difference accounted Your pitch- Monozygotic twins- identical, dizygotic twins- different Psychological adjustment- MZ-.53 modest adjustment DZ-.02 MZ- strong association in incident of reading disabilities, autism, mood disorders, alcoholism, schizophrenia Even though same genes, not a one to one correlation, both don't necessarily have same H2- heritability index, statistical procedure, not a correlation, percentage of variability that can be accounted for by a particular element, Extraversion=.36 Neuroticism=.31 Conscientiousness=.28 Agreeableness=.28 Openness to experience=.46 Academics=.40 IQ=.50 How much of variability if we take 100 people how much of their scores percent…? Bouchard et al '90 Role of genes and heritability: individual differences Twin studies-bouchard et al Study over 12 years EKG, EEG, IQ and personality testing, interviews, videotapes 30-50& of individual differences due to genetics, less than half of variability can be accounted for by genetic variability Plomin et al, 2008- said environment was simply the general location of where one was raised, environment really accounts for about 5% of variability How do you define environment? Hoffman, 1998 - suggested how we define environment Research strategies Same experience (nervous mother) has different effect (neurotic son, steady, less neurotic son) Different genetics evoke different reactions Different genetics create/seek out different environment- environment each son creates outside of family, competitive sports, extra-curriculars Klahr and Burt (2014) The environment x-genes effects Parent child interactions- bidirectional: parent-kid and kid-parent effects, can't be reduced "environment" includes parent's personality, neighborhood, culture, and socio economic factors Briley and Tucker-Drob, 2014 Genetics vs. Environment effects Meta analysis (age 1 to 86, assessed on average ever 5.3 years) Degree to which environment and genetics may account for personality development, try to tease out when genetics seems to plateau, when environment takes over, Findings 1 Over life cycle, your phenotypes stability is largely due to increased environment contributions 2 Genetic stability high as infant until age 30, then plateau 3 Environmental stability rises quickly, then slow but steady increase over life span 4 As individual grows whatever shared environment and genes lessen as autonomy/novel/idisyncratic life experiences become more enduring simultaneously both stable identify and environment reduce likelihood of novel environmental influences As I become more of an adult we can't point to one single environment, genetic cause, goes back to James' "turning point" RACE Social construct- dynamic set of ideas and practices Stereotype/prejudice Impulses power over one group Effects mental health, response to therapy Hall et al. 2016 Racial distribution: fact of life in the USA Ethnicity Identify with group based on commonalities Confers sense of belonging, pride, motivation Focus attention on differences in meaning, values and way of living Gender Gender identity; male, female, transsexual, intersexual (may identity self as transgender, gender queer, gender nonconforming, questioning Sexual preference: hetero, gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, ally, asexual No personality theorist has ever addressed these issues Gender differences (Zell et al, 2015) For men: Masculinity Mental rotation ability (visual perception ability) men may have slight advantage Physical attractiveness as basis for mate selection, men much more likely to use attractiveness as determiner Aggression (includes assertiveness) For women: Reactivity to pain (more reactive) Peer attachment (much more likely to bond quickly) Interest in people (vs. things) CULTURE Shapes perceptions, descriptions of self, style of thinking Socialization Individualism- dichotomized the world ("I" society) vs. collectivism ("we" society) (Triandis 1979) Modified: individual level (openness to change vs. conservation and self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence) at Culture level (encouraging autonomy vs. encouraging conservation and mastery vs. hierarchy) (Schwartz, 1984) Doesn't mean "we" society has no "I" Is this a culture that is emphasizing autonomy over collective, not either or but which is more salient? Further modified: 2 polarities- self definition and interpersonal relatedness across cultures, differences in which is emphasized and how emphasized If you look at societies where openness to experience is low, these are collectivistic societies, if we reshaped what we mean by openness to experience, expand to openness to human relations, what may be important is some of these cultures are emphasizing self definition as well as interpersonal relatedness, some cultures are emphasizing how we should express autonomy, which experience is my society encouraging I be open to? (Cheunng et al 2011; Luyten and Blatt 2013)
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