×

### Let's log you in.

or

Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!

×

or

## tester

by: Meena Notetaker

5

1

29

# tester 1035

Meena Notetaker
Virginia Tech

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

×
Unlock Preview

tester
COURSE
General Chemistry
PROF.
Dr. Amateis
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
29
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Chemistry

This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meena Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1035 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Amateis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

×

## Reviews for tester

×

×

### What is Karma?

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/16
Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     1 of 29 Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Chemistry  Chemistry:  Study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes,  and the energy associated with those changes. Matter: MEASUREMENTS There are 3 parts to every measurement: 1.   2.   Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     2 of 29 3.   Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     3 of 29 UNITS  Two Systems:   1.  English System: A system of units used only in the United States Length: Mass: Volume:    2.  SI (Metric) System:  Used all over the world and in science.  Units are based on multiples of 10 and are converted to other units by means of prefixes.                                          Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     4 of 29 Common Decimal Prefixes Used with SI Units Prefix* Prefix  Meaning Example Symbol [using gram (g) and meter (m)] tera T 1x10 12 1 teragram (Tg) = 1x10  g 9 9 giga G 1x10 1 gigagram (Gg) = 1x10  g mega M 1x10 6 1 megagram(Mg) = 1x10  g6 3 3 kilo k 1x10 1 kilogram (kg) = 1x10  g hecto h 1x10 2 1 hectogram (hg) = 1x10  g 1 1 deka da 1x10 1 dekagram (1 dag) = 1x10  g — 1x10 0 –1 –1 deci d 1x10 1 decimeter (1 dm) = 1x10  m centi c 1x10 –2 1 centimeter (1 cm) = 1x10  m –3 –3 milli m 1x10 1 millimeter (1 mm) = 1x10  m micro μ 1x10 –6 1 micrometer (1 μm) = 1x10  m6 –9 –9 nano n 1x10 1 nanometer (1 nm) = 1x10  m pico p  1x10 –12 1 picometer (1 pm) = 1x10  m2 –15 –15 femto f  1x10 1 femtometer (1 fm) = 1x10  m Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     5 of 29 *The prefixes most frequently used by chemists appear in bold type. Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     6 of 29 Some SI units: Length: Mass: Volume: Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     7 of 29 **You must know the conversion factors for the SI system but you do not have to memorize English­metric conversion factors.** Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     8 of 29 Unit Conversions When converting from one unit to another, a conversion factor (a ratio of  equivalent quantities) is chosen and set up so that all units cancel except those  required for the answer. Example Problem – Unit Conversion I have 62.5 g of liquid N .2 What is its mass in pounds?   (1 lb = 0.4536 kg) Example Problem – Unit Conversion  An ostrich can run at 45 mi/hr.  What is this speed in m/min?  (1 mi = 1.609 km) Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     9 of 29  Density:  ratio of mass to volume mass                                             d = volume              d of gold = 19.3 g/cm     so   19.3 g of gold = 1 cm 3 Density is a conversion factor between mass and volume. Example Problem – Unit Conversion with Density What volume does 62.5 g of liquid N  occupy?2The density of liquid N   2 is 0.808 g/mL. Mass =  Volume =  What connects these two quantities? Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     10 of 29 Example Problem – Unit Conversion The density of liquid N  is 0.208 g/mL. Convert the density of liquid N  to lb/ft   2 3 3 (1 mL = 1 cm ; 1 lb = 0.4536 kg; 1 in = 2.54 cm) Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     11 of 29 Why did one of the world's largest, most advanced airplanes have to become a  glider (July 23, 1983)? Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     12 of 29 Fueling stop:  The dipstick indicated a volume of 7682 L of fuel in the tank.  A  mass of 22,300 kg of fuel is required for the trip (fuel need is calculated by  mass). Mechanics used a density of 1.77 kg/L to convert between L and kg: Mass of fuel in tank: Mass of fuel needed: But the density is 1.77 lb/L NOT kg/L: Density in kg/L:   Mass of fuel in tank: Mass of fuel needed: Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     13 of 29 Example Problem – Complex Unit Conversion Gold can be hammered into very thin sheets called gold leaf.  A builder needs to cover a 100 ft x 82 ft ceiling with gold leaf that is five millionths of an inch  3 thick.  The density of gold is 19.32 g/cm , and gold costs \$1418 per troy ounce  (1 troy ounce = 31.1034768 g).  How much will it cost for the builder to  purchase the necessary gold?     (1 in = 2.54 cm) Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     14 of 29 Temperature Scales Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Symbol °C K °F Freezing point of water 0°C 273.15 K 32°F Boiling point of water 100°C 373.15 K 212°F Difference between 100 100  180 freezing and  boiling points Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     15 of 29 Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     16 of 29 Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     17 of 29 Celsius and Kelvin have the same size degree but different zero points:       K = °C + 273.15                                     °C = K – 273.15 Celsius and Fahrenheit have different size degrees and different zero points: 180 9 1 Celsius degree =   =   Fahrenheit degrees 100 5 9 5 °F =  5°C + 32                                        °C =9(°F – 32)  Example Problem – Temperature Conversion Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of –196 C.  What is this temperature in °F  and K?    Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     18 of 29 Intensive Properties Extensive Properties       Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     19 of 29 Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     20 of 29 Uncertainty of Measurements Uncertainty due to: Every measurement includes some uncertainty.  The rightmost digit of any  quantity is always estimated. The recorded digits, certain and uncertain, are called significant figures. The greater the number of significant digits in a quantity, the greater its  certainty.   Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     21 of 29 Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     22 of 29                A Measurement is Only As Good As The Measuring Tool Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     23 of 29                                            Rules For Significant Figures 1) Any non zero digit is significant. 2) Zeros between non­zero digits (captive zeros) are significant 3) Placeholding zeros on the left of the first non­zero digit are not significant;  these are only used to locate the decimal point. 4) Trailing zeros following a decimal point are significant. 5) Trailing zeros in a number without a decimal point are presumed to be  placeholders and are not significant. Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     24 of 29 Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     25 of 29 Example Problem – Significant Figures Number Number Sig. Figs. Number Number Sig. Figs. 2364 2090 409 0.04050 0.0579 3.040 x 10 4 Exact Numbers:  Certain defined quantities have an infinite number of  significant figures; there is no uncertainty associated with them.  These include  most conversion factors:                                                   100 cm = 1 m                                                   1 in = 2.54 cm    Exact numbers do not limit the number of  significant digits in a calculation. Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     26 of 29 Rules for Significant Figures in Calculations Addition and  Subtraction: The answer has the same number of decimal places as there are in the  measurements with the fewest decimal places.     89.332  +  1.1        Multiplication and Division: The answer contains the same number of significant figures as in the  measurement with the fewest significant figures. 134 x 25 =                                                               6.85 / 112.04 =  Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     27 of 29 Precision and Accuracy Precision Accuracy  The range of measurements; how   The closeness of a measurement  close repeated measurements are to  to the actual value. each other.   Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     28 of 29 Measurement of a 25.0 g sample of water: Random error: Systematic error: Chem. 1035                                                                                         Chapter 1                                                                     29 of 29 Rules for Rounding Off Numbers| 1.  If the digit removed is more than 5, the preceding number increases by 1.      5.379             5.38  (three sig. figs)            5.379             5.4  (two sig. figs) 2.  If the digit removed is less than 5, the preceding number is unchanged.      0.2413            0.241 (three significant figures)       0.2413            0.24   (two significant figures)  3.  If the digit removed is 5, the preceding number increases by 1 if it is odd and      remains unchanged if it is even.      17.75              17.8   (three significant figures)      17.65              17.6   (three significant figures)     If the 5 is followed only by zeros, rule 3 is followed; if the 5 is followed by     nonzeros, rule 1 is followed.     17.6500               17.6                                 17.6513               17.7 4.  Be sure to carry two or more additional significant figures through a       multistep calculation and round off only the final answer only.

×

×

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

×

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

#### "Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over \$500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

#### "It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!
×

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com