Industrialization 1870s-1910s HIST 261
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Fallis on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 261 at Northern Illinois University taught by Professor Beatrix Hoffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see The United States Since 1865 in History at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Industrialization 1870s-1910s What Makes an Industrialized Economy? Moving away from agriculture Growing big businesses (versus more mom and pop stores) More urbanization (more people moving into cities) A New World for Workers Mechanization o Machinery begins to be used to make good instead of by hand o The assembly line is created Deskilling workers o Machines made it so you didn't really need a skill o Workers knew how to do make one part instead of the whole product o Work was repetitive, monotonous, and faster o Saved on labor cost o Workers became easy to replace Speed Up o More products in less time meant more money o Less workers meant more money Wages and hours o Wage cuts and longer hours became common o There became a surplus of labor force in this time o Unemployment became good for businesses because it meant they could easily replace workers, and there was competition for work o Workers would work anywhere from 10-14 hours a day 6-7 a week Sunday was traditionally given off for church Danger: disease and accident o Workers would often be fired if they didn't show up to work so they would go in sick o Poor work conditions Workers comp. didn't become a thing until the 1910s o o The Jungle shed light on how awful conditions of the Chicago meat industry was i.e. rat falling into grinders, workers' fingers being eaten away from acid o Black lung became common for miners, while textile mills faced brown lung o Close quarters made it easy for tuberculosis to spread o There were no regulations for factories Women and Children in the Workforce Both were paid less than men o Children paid the least Both mostly worked in textile factories o Seen as useful because of their tiny hands being able reach smaller areas Child labor was not banned or regulated until 1938 during FDR's New Deal o A law against child labor was attempted to be passed in 1916, but was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court Wealth and Political Interference Robber Barons o Businessmen who showed little moral interest while getting rich Businesses used wealth to influence political policies o Ideological agreement between people of power Lassiez Faire o Government would not regulate business o Government did promote businesses Workers Respond The Great Strike Wave o Refusing to work for an attempt of change o Gathered and made demands Against business rules to gather Had to strike to meet in the first place o Often fired and replaced o Black listed for protesting Labor Unions/Trade Unions o Only happened after several strikes were started o 1886 the Eight Hour Association was created Fought for and eight hour work day Eight hour days and five day work weeks weren't guaranteed by the government until the 1930s Most strikes ended in violence due to the authorities being called o Armories created for a place for militia to stay during strikes Haymarket Riot 1886 o Happened in Chicago o Connected to working towards getting the eight hour work day o Leaders seen as dangerous aggravators o Peaceful protest until police came in and began to club workers and fire on them Six workers died o During peak hysteria of riot someone threw in a bomb o 7 workers sent to death Four were hung One committed suicide The rest were sent to life o Sets stage for xenophobia (fear of immigrants) due to large amount of foreign workers at the time
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