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EDUC 202.008, week 3 notes

by: Rebecca Goldman

EDUC 202.008, week 3 notes EDUC 202

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These notes discuss the debates between the regular people and the government on how schools should be run and what materials should be taught. The notes also discuss how the minorities dealt with ...
Perspectives: American Urban Schols
Saundra M. Deltac
Class Notes
Education, racism, Minorities, Government, courtcases, Schools
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDUC 202 at Towson University taught by Saundra M. Deltac in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Lay Community Control Vs. Bureaucratic Model Lay Definition: regular/average person Complains about: ∙   Curriculum­ not consistent  ∙   Selection & supervision of teachers­not consistent ∙   School attendance­not mandatory ∙   Discipline problems­not outlined  ∙   Diversity of buildings and equipment ∙   Non­graded (mixed) primary education ∙   Younger students taught by older students ∙   Teachers were often of “foreign extraction”­ English was accented, so teacher set different  standard for English in community ∙   Flexible scheduling (around harvests) ∙   Lack of bureaucratic buffers between teacher and patron “Taking the School out of Politics” ∙   Villagers controlled hired teachers ∙   Teacher was subordinated to community ∙  “…rural folk wanted to run their schools and didn’t know what was good for them in the  complex new society.” ∙   Central control (i.e. bureaucracy) often “served to obscure the actual alignments of power and  patterns of privilege Leading Schoolmen Argued that Provincial Education could not Equip Youth with Skills ∙   Changing definition of citizenship­ more immigrants were coming to America and wanted to  turn new Americans into true Americans ∙ “Socialize different elements… teacher be American in sympathy, ideals, training, and  loyalty.”­ people in charge (white Anglo­Saxon, protestant males) decide what American loyalty  looks like ∙   Demands of Agriculture: Machinery, Mills, Hydro­electric power ∙   Technologies of urban society: Electricity, Plumbing Parents now can’t teach skills needed for labor, so they need to be taught more than reading and  simple math in school.  NEA (National Education Association) Offers Remedies: Uniform Regulation ∙   Consolidation of schools and pupil transportation­ make sure children get educated  ∙   Supervision of superintendents ∙   Professionally trained teachers (normal schools) ∙   Teach country children sound values and vocational skills­ Need to have skills to work in the  city “The paradox of American education is that it asks for education for all, yet urges that control of  the educational system be placed in a bureaucracy.” –Oregon Schoolman Transformation Changes: ∙   Power from laymen to professionals ∙   Creation of state laws coercing rural communities to consolidate schools Reactions: ∙   Rural school patrons wanted to maintain school control. ∙   Resisted consolidation & standardization ∙   Feared loss of social identity due to unification “The impetus to consolidate rural schools almost always came from outside the rural  community.”­ Tyack, p. 25 “How fragile… is a sense of voluntary community in a mass society.” Turn of the Century Education:  One Best System? Turn of the Century Education…  Uniform curriculum  Staggering statistics  Male mystique  Attendance ~ Truancy  Immigration  Industrialized humanity or humanize industry? Uniform Curriculum  Creation of standardized tests  Determine acquisition of “certain amount of positive knowledge”  Hidden Curriculum – something not written in syllabus or curriculum  Traits, behaviors, roles expected of students  Rarely written in curriculum guides  Not acknowledged in school objectives  Examples o Conformity to authority (bathroom pass) o Adaption of bureaucratic definition (3rd Graders) o Speaking English in class Military Precision Demanded by  Punctuality  Regularity  Attention  Silence Enforced by  Busy every minute with tasks  Competition o Praise o Seats­ if you did well, you got to sit in a chair (not enough seats for everyone) o Materials  Terror of Degradation o Corporal punishment­ physically punishing student o Humiliation o Shaming encouraged by teacher to get students to behave Teachers treated academic failure, not as a reflection of their own abilities of instructors, but as  evidence of the students’ personal and moral resistance; this tendency was institutionalized on a  grand scale in the village and city schools of the 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s.  Who Suffered? Kids with special needs, non­English speakers, Catholic students, under­resourced children McGuffey’s First Eclectic Reader­ implied certain social status. If you didn’t have it, you  suffered in the classroom ­First published/mass distributed teaching book ­Didn’t use protestant Bible  Public High Schools before 1900  Horace Mann­ made first High school  Predominantly urban­ If you went to high school, you weren’t working and helping  support your family. Mainly people from middle class went (not many)  States & localities often gave scholarship funds to private academies too (privilege)  Creation of HS helped unify collection of lower schools into a pyramid (control)  Schoolman boasted HS competition boosted lower grade performance (power)  Only a small fraction of students attended public secondary schools before 1900. Tiny  number of hose actually graduated School Resources: McGuffy Reader Messages: Take care/ be organized; academic success  equals love; be grateful; don’t waste your time in school; get another book HS Statistics Reveal:  Served upper reaches of middle class  Children of white collar workers   Children of professionals  HS designed for bright child whose parents willing and able to forego his/her labor  Vocational relevance of secondary education remote at best Teacher Training in 1800s  Majority just grammar school graduate  Approximately a quarter of urban instructors received normal school diploma  “Teachers will teach chiefly as they have been taught, and will manage pupils as they  themselves were managed during the course of their education.” Teacher Gender in 1800s  Male chauvinism reigned  Subordination of female  Consistent male administrative leadership  Women preferred because they comply  Narrowing of intellectual range of instructor­ more teachers needed for younger children  (not as sophisticated lessons)  Male teachers would be in High School  Women had more “access to heart”  Women willing to work for less $ than men  Women predominated the cities­ more job options and more people to marry  Women gained right to vote in 1920 Institutional “isms” “Equal pay for women did not eliminate sexism in schools… but illustrate that the bureaucratic  form could lend itself to the righting of specific injustices while still perpetuating the inequities  of the larger society.” Inequities definition injustices Examples: chauvinism, racism, sexism, ageism, classism (social class), childism (not including  one in decision making or say “you’re too young/ children are to be seen not heard) Funding  Latter half of 19th century free schooling became widely available  Public education rose from 47% of total expenditures for schooling in 1850 to 79% in  1900  More than ⅔ of public funds came from local tax assessment  Opportunity cost of schooling (income missed because they were at school, not working)  of students 10­15 rose from $24.8 million in 1860 to $214 million in 1900. Attendance  Earlier a child left school, likelier he entered an unskilled job  More girls stayed in schooling as had less economic impact  High school from girls bridged the freedom of childhood and responsibilities of marriage  Public schools vs. school of the streets (“school must fill the moral vacuum”) o Want to get youths off of streets so they can be taught morals and correct  behavior  Schooling became a preventative detention Immigration & Poverty  Urban truants (skipping school/absences) o Poor o Immigrant o Non­Protestant o The Great Debate, Truancy push back, Philadelphia bible riots (all things to  know) These people didn’t want to go to school or weren’t accepted because they were different  De facto­segregation (de facto means as a result of…)  o There were policies for tests that lead to segregation in schools  Example: tests that non­protestants wouldn’t be able to complete or only  English tests to fish out immigrants o “Intermediate schools” for those who did not meet the admission requirements of the grammar schools. o All black schools, all Irish schools, all immigrant schools  Way to sever association with native children to elevate character of public schools Compulsory Schooling vs. Overcrowding  1886 Chicago if all children who were legally obligated to attend school, only ⅓ find  seats  In San Francisco, parents fought board of admit students even though classrooms  overcrowded  1881 NY had to refuse admission to 9,189 pupils due to lack of room  In Philadelphia, 20,000 children could not attend school for lack of seats  Then WHY compulsory attendance law?? Function of Schooling  Create order by separation  Imposed discipline  Create opportunities o Read o Compute o Knowledge history and geography (American independence history) o Speak standard English  Assimilation vs. Unity o Give up own identity to be American (assimilation) or learn to be in unity without losing own identity (unity/ acculturation)  o Melting pot vs. Salad Bowl A common school run for the people but not by the people? The Politics Compulsory Schooling vs. Overcrowding  1886 Chicago; if all children who were legally obliged to attend school, only ⅓ find  seats  In San Francisco, parents fought board to admit students even though classrooms  overcrowded  1881 NY had to refuse admission to 9,189 pupils due to lack of room.  Philadelphia, 20,000 children could not attend school for lack of seats. If There is so much over­crowding, then why do you think the educational bureaucracy was  working to make compulsory attendance a law? Everyone thinks that the school should be doing something. Each person has a different position  on what they think education should do and be. Example: Police wanted children off the street and parents wanted educated children Functions of Schooling Impose Structure:  Create order by separation  Imposed discipline  Assimilation vs. Unity­ want students to assimilate to the dominant culture  Dominant culture  Create Opportunities  Read Compute Knowledge history & geography  Speak standard English  Want learned society Two views were not always together, but were not always against each other Paddling & Dunce Cap  Example of Corporal punishment and shaming/ humiliation to manipulate and control  students Criticisms of Superintendents  New system became inflexible and rule ridden  Mechanical character of city schools (every school and class is the same). Cloaking school establishment in virtue allowed them to denounce any attacks on ideology or  practice as work of the enemies of democracy. (p.80)­ meant that if people criticized school  system, then they were against democracy Example of cloaking virtue: People who were against sending troops to Vietnam and  were accused of being unpatriotic which isn’t accurate and doesn’t relate to what they  were disagreeing with.  Linking things together that don’t necessarily belong together.  Discrimination  Religion­ Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism  Class­low class  Race­ anyone not white  Ethnicity  Politics  Neighborhood loyalties  Students with special needs  If could afford, separate schools created to properly educate children o Parochial/Hebrew o African American Purpose of School Privileged Class:  Increase wealth  Secure property  Prevent revolution (prevent change because class is benefitting in current environment) Lower Class:  Break down barriers­ want more opportunities  Lift them into ranks of rich  Bring them substantial equality Religion & Ethnicity  Protestants’ power, dominant in village schools, now slipping in urban schools  Temperance (no alcohol) instruction by 1901­ Protestant belief pushed into schools  WASP vs. Catholic and Jewish immigrants Accustomed to thinking themselves as a majority and their views as the accepted consensus, they did not regard themselves as “political” but as crusaders for the obvious good. (p.105)­ they  thought they knew better than parents, what children need Immigrants vs. Nativists (moved to America before current immigrants)  Vital to teach their native language to children (only English).   They paid taxes too.  Germans in Cincinnati (1840) passed law if 75 freeholders demanded it in writing, must  teach German. Had bilingual schools through early 1880. Wanted to maintain language  and they paid taxes too and wanted to be heard and listened to  After 1900s common language of high status and immigrants with political clout became  an elective.  Introduction of young pupils in foreign languages aroused much opposition As in the case of Protestant rituals in the schools, the contest over instruction in languages other  than English became a symbolic battle between those who wanted to impose one standard of  belief and those who welcomed pluralistic forms of education. (p. 109) Position of Schoolmen Conflicts  Politics of interest groups  Cultural conflicts of Catholic vs. Protestant  Nativist & Immigrants  Black & White Viewpoints  Held common set of WASP (white anglo saxan protestant) values  Professed common­core (Pan­ Protestant) Christianity  Ethnocentric­ think race is above others and everyone should listen to and you are  important  Glorify sturdy virtues of a rural tradition   Took values as self­evidently true and not subject to debate disliked partisan controversy  Disliked partisan controversy The Burden of Race: A Struggle Lonely and Unequal Urban Growth  Investors with profit in mind created businesses in cities  Attracted millions of immigrants seeking jobs  Thanks to steel production, tall buildings and skyscrapers dominated large cities  Between 1870 and 1920, dramatic population increases occurred, not from natural causes, but from the attraction of new migrants.   From Europe, Asia, Canada, Africa, the Caribbean, and Mexico, but rural areas of  America too (Includes African Americans after the Civil War) After 1880: Second Wave of Immigrants  Eastern and southern Europeans, and often Catholic, Jewish, or Greek Orthodox  Christians, as well as some immigrants from Canada, Mexico, China, and Japan, came to  the US in increasing numbers   Nativists (people that moved to America generations before) feared a population  dominated by Roman Catholics loyal to the Pope, not Protestant  By 1910, Mexico, Austria­Hungary, and Russia produced huge amounts of immigrants   These “new immigrants” were extremely alien, often poor and illiterate, but with the help of previous arrivals, they managed to make a living in the US  While white immigrants were able to intersperse into the white American population,  those of color were subject to segregation and racism (included Italians and Asians­ Chinese) East Coast Arrival: Ellis Island­ People had to prove health and connection in America to be  allowed in West Coast Arrival: Angel Island­ same as above Asian Discrimination  Chinese experienced segregated residence, living in Chinatowns in various cities only  place they were allowed to live  Some Irish immigrants blamed high unemployment rate on the Chinese because Chinese  accepted jobs for less money than Irish, so they got job over Irish  In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which disallowed the immigration  and those that live in America and were born in America cannot be considered an  American citizen which took away the right of the Chinese.  Ghettos and Barrios  Due to racial segregation, many African Americans were forced ghettos usually  tenements­crowded old building, small living space with multiple families crowded into  them  Low economic class and small living spaces were often home to several families  These ethnic ghettos formed in urban areas  Mexicans, who had originally inhabited much of the deep Southwest region, were pushed into increasingly isolated living and commercial districts known as barrios.   Ghettos, tenements, and barrios are synonyms Sarah Roberts Denied Entry to Boston Public School  1849 (before slaves were freed, but there were free African Americans)   Her father was a lawyer and friends with a white lawyer who was an abolitionist (fought  against slavery and segregation)  They went to court to fight against segregation in school systems and lost, but got  conversation started  Boston divided: segregated v. integrated  Abolitionists supported  1855 abolished segregated schools in Boston not by case, but inspired by court case Failure to secure educational rights for African American students in US  Civil War  Emancipation Proclamation­freed slaves  14th Am: Due Process (innocent until proven guilty) & Equal Protection  15th Am: Right to Vote  1855 Know­Nothing law allowed quiet co­education  Black teachers only in Black schools African American Migration  Rural African Americans left for cities for jobs  Racism very prominent  People of African descent were believed to be inferior & incapable of operating heavy  machinery (going at fast pace in factories)  Most of these migrants accepted jobs in the service field, which were traditionally  female, so black women often outnumbered black men o Laundry, nursing Colored Schools  Before civil war negro schools independent of regular school system  Schools in rented space o Basements o Dilapidated (run down) housing   Initially white board of trustees (whites helped provide protection so they could have the  schools) o Socially conscious  o Religious affiliated o Mainly in northern cities  1870: 9.9% of Negro children age 5­9 attended school  1890: over 31% attended school  Illiteracy cut in half from 1870 to 1900 Plessy (plaintiff) v. Ferguson (defendant) 1896  Landmark US Supreme Court case that legalized discrimination against African­ Americans and gave credence to the “separate but equal” doctrine  The Citizens Committee, an organization of prominent African Americans, chose Homer  Plessy, a one­eight black, as a volunteer to violate state law by sitting in a separate but  white­only railroad car.  Court ruled that a state law providing for separate facilities for the two races was NOT  unconstitutional  Court case started at state court and then appealed it for Supreme court. After ruling, it  was legal to segregate blacks and whites everywhere  Start of Jim Crow laws that it was constitutional to separate o Example: schools, water fountains, hotels, movie theaters, restaurants  Plessy v. Ferguson and Jim Crow laws that flourished in the South due to the Supreme  Court legitimizing segregation, were not formally discredited until 1954, in Brown v.  Board of Education, (1954) Cummins v. Richmond, GA County Board of Education  Case stays at local court, not state or Supreme court  1899 ruling that schools could apply the “separate­but­equal” doctrine and allowed  school segregation  Class action suit (group of people, not one person) brought against a Georgia country  school board and the local taxing authority demanding relief from a portion of the taxes  levied against African­American property owners  Lost case  The Petitioners objected to paying the part of the tax used to support two “whites­only”  high schools after Richmond County closed its private African­American high school  Government shut down African American schools because of the Class action suit Court Cases Summary State­ Sara Roberts (Boston, MA) 1849 Fought to make schools not segregated, failed, but schools were no longer segregated by  1855 Before slaves were freed Supreme Court­ Plessy (D.C.) Plessy was a part of The Citizens Committee which chose him to sit on white reserved  train car. They went to state court arguing that the cars shouldn’t be segregated. They lost and got an appeal to go to the Supreme Court The Supreme Court ruled it constitutional which started the Jim Crow laws The Jim Crow laws were laws to segregate every day areas such as schools, movie theaters, and  hotels. The Jim Crow laws were not discredited until 1954 Local Court­ Cummins (Georgia) Group of parents argued that they shouldn’t be taxed for African American schools, if nothing is  being done with the money They lost and their private schools were shut down


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