FAD 2230 Week 2 Notes
FAD 2230 Week 2 Notes FAD2230
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Mallory Greer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
FAD2230 Chapter 2: Social Status: Sex & Gender, Race & Ethnicity, Social Class Our choices, even personal ones, do not exist in a vacuum. o Things outside and around us influence our choices Social Location o Recognize that we have different experiences based on our location Sociological Imagination o Personal experiences are shaped by forces within our society o Think about how society EMPOWERS or CONSTRIANS us How sometimes men make more money than women Being a woman can be a constraint in the workforce o What is it like to be a woman in our culture? The struggle to have a career now but still be expected to start and run a family Thought to be more vulnerable Makeup vs no makeup Men doing whatever they want while we have to look proper Bic for her pens Gender vs. Sex o Sex: Biological differences (chromosomes, hormonal profiles, sex organs) o Gender: Characteristics that a society delineates as masculine or feminine Social Construction Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus o The Gender Similarities Hypothesis (Janet Hyde) Hypothesis that makes and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables Findings 78% of “gender differences” were small or close to zero o IQ o Most differences that are being claimed are very small Systematic differences in TWO areas o Motor Performance Men can throw a ball further o Measures of Sexuality Men masturbate more often Men are more ok with casual sex o Why does everyone talk about the differences? Gender socialization: We are taught the cultural norms associated with being male/female from a young age Agents of Socialization: Who teaches us? o Parents o Schools/Teachers o TV shows o School uniforms o Toys o Peers o Mass Media What/who is the most influential “agent of socialization” o Parents There from day 1 Parents may be influenced by media How does gender influence relationships? o Patriarchy: Social organization in which the expectation is that men have a natural right to be in positions of authority Saudi Arabia is a much more patriarchal society than here Race vs Ethnicity o Race: real or perceived physical traits deemed important by society Skin color Hair type o Ethnicity: Shared cultural characteristics From the Seminole tribe Irish/Polish/German Cultural background o Different experiences based on skin color Prejudice is an attitude Women are worse than men People can have prejudice and not act on them Stereotypes are a judgment Women are bad at driving Asians are good at math Discrimination is an action/behavior Individual Discrimination (micro) o Not being served because of skin color o Getting a background check Institutional Discrimination (macro) o Not allowed to vote o What is privilege? White Privilege: Different opportunities you’re not often aware of Cultural Trends in Families Fastest growing minority group Hispanics The “model minority” Asian American The highest infant mortality rate and lowest life expectancy African Americans o Consider our role as scholars and as fellow humans – what are we supposed to do to address prejudice, discrimination and inequality? Social Class o Socioeconomic status Occupational prestige Education Income o How does social class influence the family and our relationships? Think about the family you were born into Prince William vs. Honey Boo Boo Higher classes Have fewer children Delay marriage and delay having children Encourage education Lower classes Have lower health Fewer brakes More stress o Social Stratification Hierarchal ranking of categories of people within society Groups are NOT treated equally Your ranking = more, less or different opportunities o Caste System in India Very official Supreme Court rules that social organization is inherited and cannot be changed The group that you are born into Abolished in 1947 Overt discrimination o American Dream: Social Mobility Upward movement from one class to another You can go further in life than your grandparents if you work hard 46.2 million people live in poverty 1 in 6 Americans Influence of poverty on kids o Poor health/nutrition **** o Lower quality home environment o Parental stress and mental health problems o Child behavior problems and mental health Spilling from the parent’s issues o Fewer resources fro learning o Housing problems o Poor quality neighborhoods Family Stress Model (Conger et al, 2010) o Financial Hardship Parent Distress Disrupted Family Relations Child Adjustment (behavior issues) How do we study families? o Research Question o Theory Our “lens of Families Provides basic assumptions about nature and society Ranges from macro to micro perspective Macro: broad concepts Micro: relationships between people o Hypothesis o Research Methodology FAD2230 Chapter 3: Rational Choice/ Social Exchange Theory Utility o Ability of something to satisfy needs or wants o Quality or state of being useful, profitable or beneficial Framework o Rooted in utilitarianism: suggests that individuals rationally weigh the rewards and costs associated with behavioral choices o “Proper” course of action will maximize benefits and reduce adverse outcomes Exchange Theory o Examines motivation (what propels a person to act) o Focus and Assumptions 1. The individual is real The methodological individualism: Actions reflect society 2. Prediction and understanding by understanding the individuals Motivation 3. Actors are motivated by self-interest 4. Actors are rational Assumes people calculate ration of costs and rewards Concepts o Rewards and costs o Profits or maximizing utility o Comparison Level Comparing yourself to someone in the same position but with different experiences Ex: Comparing your dating relationship to a friend in a dating relationship that feels differently (happy in the relationship) o Comparison level for alternatives Comparing yourself to someone in a different situation than you are Ex: Comparing your dating relationship to a single friend o Rationality Value of rewards changes over time Ex: Valuing an all you can eat buffet can change to preferring tapas o Exchanges and equity in relationships Does the relationship feel fair? o Human capital and social capital Human capital: knowledge, skills and techniques acquired by an individual Social capital: Relationships between people This is a valuable thing o Generalizable sources of rewards As a society, we value rewards Propositions o 1. Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit It may feel like you are choosing stress, but you’re choosing success in the future o 2. In a situation with no rewards, actors seek to minimize costs Principle of least costs What does exchange theory tell us about families? o Voluntaristic notion: We have choices, so when we engage in a relationship
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