Chapter 4 KINE 1400 Notes - Exercise Physiology
Chapter 4 KINE 1400 Notes - Exercise Physiology kine 1400
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Chase on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to kine 1400 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by David M Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO EXERCISE SCIENCE in Kinesiology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 4: ExercisePhysiology Energy and Work Immediate energy sources o 1-5 seconds o ATP, PC o Anaerobic Short term energy sources o <2 min o Glycolysis (breakdown of CHO) o Anaerobic Long term energy sources o >2 minutes o Muscleglycogen, glucose,plasma FFA o Aerobic ATP Production Anaerobic exercisedecreases %of ATP production with more time Aerobic exerciseincreases %of ATP production with more time MuscleFiber Types: Genetics,Sex, Training Distribution has a wide variation Genetic component (fraternal twins) Fast-twitch fibers do not convert to slow-twitch with training Training increases oxidative capacity o Increasing mitochondrial number o Capillarydensity MuscleFiber Distribution I (ST) – 52% IIa (FTa) –33% IIx (FTx) -13% Type IIx canbe converted to IIa inresponse to aerobic training Type I (ST or SO) Increased capillarydensity to carry O2 to mitochondria Fatigue resistant ATP regenerated in the mitochondria Type IIa (FOG or FTa) Has characteristics ofboth type Iand IIx Greater force produced than Type I o Alsoresists ffatiguedue to largenumber of mitochondria Type IIx (FG or FTb) Primarily- anaerobic metabolism for contraction (CPor glycolysis) Highestforce Fatigue quickly VO2= oxygen consumption VO2inspired-VO2 expired VO2max = max rate at which oxygen can be consumed/utilized during maximal physical work Gross VO2 =Total VO2including resting requirements Net VO2 =Gross VO2-Resting VO2 Net VO2 is associatedwiththe amount of VO2being performed during exerciseminus resting oxygen uptake Maximal OxygenConsumption VO2max measured near the end of an incremental exerciseprotocal VO2max vs VO2peak Factors that influence on VO2max Training – 5-25% increase(44% extreme interval training) Heredity canaccount for up to 40 % Gender and Age Altitude and VO2max- inverse relationship VO2and Altitude Altitude and VO2max – inverse relationship Decreasen O2pressure with a risein altitude ->decreasein arterial oxygen content-> increasedHR for a given work load Carbon Monoxide CO binds to hemoglobin and decreases O2content to blood. After 4% concentration there is a 1% drop in VO2max for every 1% CO increasein the blood Respiratory Exchange Ratio VCO2production/ VO2consumption RER (R)indicated fuel utilization for a given condition Factors that influence R o Hyperventilation will increaseR value o Acute – anxiety, discomfort, pain o Chronic – metabolic acidosis o Talking and recent food ingestion Effects of diet and training on fuel utilization HighCHO diet canincreasemuscle glycogenstores Heavy training prior to ingesting CHP Sports drinks maintain blood glucoseduring prolonged exercise HR/Time/Ventilation graph 4.10 O2uptake/Time graph 4.9 Effectof Training on LactateThreshold Graph 4.12 Anaerobic glycolysis Measured inthe blood Canbe used as a marker of fitness/performance Ventilatory threshold Graph 4.13 Occurs at a higher work rate following training Variables that Determine Oxygen uptake VO2= cardiac output x (a-V)O2difference Cardiac output – HR and Stroke Volume Effects of Training on HR response to graded exercise Graph 4.14 Max HR is not influenced by the amount of training HR will be lower during exerciseduring post-training but you will still beable to reach max HR by reaching a higher grade HR and grade are linear Cardiac Output Graph 4.16 Stays about the sameduring pre-training and post-training Max output is increasedfollowing training O2Extraction Stays the samebut increases following training Graph 4.17 BP comes from LeftVentricle Blood Pressure Training lowers blood pressure During exercisesystolic will raiseanddiastolic will lower Effects of detraining Stoke volume, VO2 max, Qmax,(a-v)O2max all will decreasewith amount of days Core Temperature Graph 4.25 Heat comes from metabolic efficiency Heat loss –graph 4.26
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