Journalism 1010 Chapter 1 Notes
Journalism 1010 Chapter 1 Notes JOUR 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 1010 at Ohio University taught by Robert Stewart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see The Future of Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 1 The media of mass communication have long played a fundamental role in people’s lives. The media inform, educate, persuade, entertain, and even—or perhaps especially—sell. Media can provide personal companionship and public scrutiny. They can shape perception on matters great and small. They can function in countless and increasing ways as extensions of one’s sense. Three types of convergence Convergence: the coming together of computing, telecommunications, and media in a digital environment Technological convergence: refers to specific types of media, such as print, audio, and video all converging into a digital media form o In response to the rise of digital media o Relevant to today’s communications professionals o Modifies how users can access the content o Content is independent of its format Economic convergence: the merging of Internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies o Traditional media companies have grown fewer and much larger in the past fifty years through mergers and acquisitions, through a process called consolidation, not convergence o Economic convergence occurs when formerly independent media enterprises further the success of one another because they fall under the same corporate umbrella Entertainment companies may own news stations o This can result in conflicts of interest when corporate parents don’t want some aspects of their businesses covered in the news Cultural convergence: the values, beliefs, and practices shared by a group of people o When one culture adopts the elements from another o It may refer to a population at large, such as Americans, or various subgroups o Powerful, globalization o We can also look at cultural convergence from the perspective of how we consume, create, and distribute media content Implications of Convergence Media organization: o Before convergence, media was created and published on predetermined scheduled by centralized media organizations in which a central unit or individual controls content production. o Internet-based media is less centralized. New marketing avenues on the Internet make it easier to mass distribute media products o Analog and digital media are rapidly being consolidated into the hands of a few very large, very powerful, and very rich owners, an economic structure referred to as an oligopoly. This is problematic. Media type: o With the internet, radio stations, TV programs, etc. are not just on their original medium o Defining media types entails consideration of vaster concerns such as media empires built on owning certain kinds of media and complex governmental laws that regulate different media industries and media ownerships o This raises constitutional questions Media content: o Stories told in digital, online medium can make connections with other types of content (primarily through hyperlinks) o On-demand content has become increasingly popular o Digitization: the process that makes media computer readable o Content is increasingly becoming available 24 hours a day Media use: o The persuasiveness of the media system entails unprecedented access to mass communication o The 24/7 media age has arrived. o Persuasive mass communication means better access to entertainment, information and news. o It can also mean that media organizations can turn us into super-consumers of media of questionable social or civic value. Media distribution: o Content is much more fluid and easier to transmit around the globe o Instantaneous o Enables audiences around the world to participate in a dialogue about global events and issues o Viral marketing: promoting a product, service, or brand online through word of mouth (online discussion groups, chats, emails) o Peer-to-peer: the basis of file-sharing services, a computer communications model and network whose computers are considered equal peers who can send, store, and receive information equally well o User-generated content: content created by the general public for distribution by digital media Videos Writing and music online Mixing current hits Media audience: o Audiences in the age of convergence can now more easily and quickly communicate with each other on a mass scale or with the creators and publishers o Audiences aren’t willing to wait for evening news or the next day’s paper for breaking news o Produsers: audiences who no longer are simply consumers but also produce content o Risks with these changes: Choosing which media you read can narrow the scope of news you see Michael Dertouzos, former MIT media lab director calls this, “The Daily Me” Could fragment audiences into small groups of like-minded individuals who avoid interacting with other groups Media profession: o The changes in convergence has changed the way communications professionals do their jobs o Using new tools to reach audiences o New skills must be learned o Citizen journalism: the gathering and sharing of news and information by public citizens particularly via mobile and social media Attitudes and values: o People have come to expect a certain degree of transparency in their communications with each other and media organizations o Establishing a sense of trust is critical, since most information is over the internet and people might not ever meet o Questions of privacy arise Blogs? Off limits? Alone time? o Behavioral targeting: advertisers tracking individuals web-browsing behaviors to provide ads that closely match the topics of sites visited or searches made. o Cookies: information that a website puts on a user’s local hard drive so that it can recognize when that computer accesses the website again allow for password recognition Mass Communication in the Digital Age Interpersonal communication: communication between two or more individuals, often in a small group o Interactive o Flowing between at least two people o Involves both verbal and nonverbal messages o Can take place through a medium (communication channel), such as the telephone o Online medium blurs the line between interpersonal and mass, because private emails, etc. can be forwarded or exposed Mass communication: communication to a large group or groups of people that remain largely unknown to the sender of the message o First mass media was printing press o Synchronous media: media that take place in real time and require the audience to be present during the broadcast or performance, such as live television o Asynchronous media: media that does not require the audience to assemble at a given time, such as printed materials or recorded video o Time shift: recording of an audio or video event for later listening or viewing Mass communication and convergence: o Digital media has blurred the line between interpersonal and mass communication o Despite interpersonal tones, some blogs have become very influential among public o Twitter also follows a blended mass-communication and mediated interpersonal communication. Functions of Mass Communication Surveillance: primarily the journalism function of mass communication which provides information about processes, issues, events, and other developments in society o Example: news about military activities, weather alerts, etc. o Weakness of surveillance is that an excess of news about disasters, murders, or other unusual events can skew the audience’s perception about what is normal in a society and can promote apathy Correlation: the ways in which media interpret events and issues and ascribe meanings that help individuals understand their roles within a larger society o Media can help maintain social stability o Media could also thwart social change or block a full range of views from being disseminated to a mass audience Cultural transmission: the transference of the dominant culture, as well as its subcultures, from one generation to the next or to immigrants o Socialization, where the media teaches societal rules and standards of behavior o Important for children but also adults new to America o Media has been criticized for creating a homogenized culture that promotes mindless consumerism as a means to achieve happiness rather than imparting more humanistic values Entertainment: performed in part by all three (surveillance, correlation, cultural transmission), but also involves the generation of content designed specifically and exclusively to entertain o Helps raise artistic and cultural taste among general populace o Some argue that mass media encourages escapism and promote lowbrow entertainment at the expense of high art o Can also perpetuate certain stereotypes about various groups, wittingly or unwittingly Theories of Communication Transmission Models: o Scientists Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver formulated an influential model of communication o Mathematical theory of communication based on a linear system of electronic communication o Here’s how it works: The original source formulates a message A transmitter encodes the message into signals The signals are delivered via a channel A receiver decodes the signals, “reconstructing” the original message which reaches its destination o One-sided from sender to receiver o How a telephone works Simplified communications model: developed by Wilbur Schramm in 1954 and based on the mathematical theory of communication o Includes a source who encodes a message, or signal, which is transmitter to a destination where the receiver decodes it o Understood communication is not a one-way process Critical theory and cultural studies o Critical Theory: a theoretical approach broadly influenced by Marxist notions of the role of ideology, exploitation, capitalism, and the economy in understanding and eventually transforming society o Cultural studies: an interdisciplinary framework for studying communication that rejects the scientific approach while investigating the role of culture in creating and maintaining social relations and systems of power o Focuses more on people than technology o James Carey: leading cultural-studies theorists who developed what he called a ritual view of communication Claimed “communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed”. From this view, reading a newspaper has less to do with receiving information than with participating in a shared cultural experience that portrays the world Television: The Future of Convergence Television changed with the advent of new technology, such as remotes, DVRs, etc. Use of product placement has grown in response to advertisers’ fears that viewers fast- forward through commercials when watching recordings Superstation: a local TV station that reaches a national audience by beaming its programming nationwide via satellite to local cable systems o First used in 1978 by Ted Turner, who launched WTBS Atlanta Convergence of television and personal computers/mobile devices Becoming more interactive