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Journalism 1010 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Abbey Marshall

Journalism 1010 Chapter 3 Notes NUTR 1000

Marketplace > Ohio University > Nutrition and Food Sciences > NUTR 1000 > Journalism 1010 Chapter 3 Notes
Abbey Marshall
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About this Document

Thursday quiz and exam
Introduction to Nutrition
Jennifer Yoder
Class Notes
journalism, Media, Print, books, Newspaper




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 1000 at Ohio University taught by Jennifer Yoder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 3 Notes Print Media Functions of Print Functions of Print Media  Transmission of culture o Teach the language, values, and traditions of a culture o Reading introduces immigrants and children to societal rules and norms o Ancient religious texts such as the Bible, etc. have successfully imparted cultural mores and values for centuries  Diffusion of ideas and knowledge  Entertainment o Sometimes we read for sheer joy o Some recent studies indicate a drop in this activity  only 67 percent of Americans sixteen and older reporting that they read paper books, down from 72 percent in 2011. Distinctive Functions of Books  Religious texts have shaped beliefs and worldviews so profoundly that wars continue to erupt over conflicting doctrine  Book burnings attest to social and cultural significance of books throughout history up to today  Textbooks, although intended to impart objective knowledge, can express values through omission as much as inclusion (ex. creationism vs evolution) History of Books to Today Monastic Scribes  Until the invention of printing, books had to be copied by hand  In the middle ages, trained monks copied religious and classical works in monastic writing rooms called scriptoria  Early books were published in school format then codexes o Codex: a manuscript of bound individual pages that replaced the scroll  Until paper arrived from China via the Middle East in the Middle Ages, European scribes wrote on parchment or vellum made from treated hides of goats, sheep, or calves Johannes Gutenberg  German printer credited with creating the first mechanical printing press in 1455  Gutenberg Bible: bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg in Europe in 1455 considered one of the first mechanically printed works Beginnings of mass communication and mass literacy  Printing press spread scientific discoveries and religious beliefs (some challenged authority of Catholic church)  Literacy was still not universal  Most Europeans and Americans remained illiterate until the nineteenth century  Education available largely to the wealthy Cheaper and smaller books  Dime Novels: accessible to the poor o Sold for 10 cents o 1860  Mass market paperbacks: inexpensive, softcover books small enough for a back pocket and sold in bookstores, supermarkets, drugstores, and other public places o 1939  Print-on-demand: publication of single books or tiny print runs based on customer demands using largely automated, nontraditional book-printing methods such as the color laser printer o Enables writers to publish low-cost prints and sell their paperbacks online or even in some bookstores o 1990s  Ebooks: online books Current Book-Industry Issues Three significant trends affecting book publishing:  Industry mergers and consolidation enable publishers to increase profit margins by reducing operating costs associated with warehousing, marketing, and sales. o Increased size means more leverage with dominant retail giants Barnes and Noble and in negotiations about obtaining prominent display locations in bookstores and on the web o Traditional publishing companies see Amazon as a competitor  The book-publishing industry is intertwined with global media and the entertainment industry o Profits for the biggest publishers are derived from technology products and services o Some books are published and adapted to movies, video games, etc.  The emergence of online booksellers, ebooks, and on-demand printing is transforming sales and distribution, growth that renders an uncertain future for traditional bookstores and even the power of traditional publishers to set prices o Amazon is capturing a rising percentage of total book sales o Borders closed Sales and Readership of Books  During recessions, pleasure book sales fall because of less disposable income.  Textbooks make up the largest portion of publishing industry in terms of sales Outlook for Books  Digital media and recession hurts book industry  Ebooks have been outselling traditional books  Another fast growing industry is audiobooks  One growing avenue is independent publishing and design Functions of Newspapers Local Newspapers  Majoring of U.S. newspaper serve local geographic communities  Local papers provide legal record of community’s public communications, running obituaries and various announcements  Local economy reporting National Newspapers  New York Times, USA Today, etc.  In 1982, Al Neuharth launched USA Today, strong mix of general-interest news with colorful graphics  New economic model: o Content sent electronically to printing and distribution centers throughout the country o Cheaper for nationwide distribution o Adopted by NYTimes, etc. o About 75 percent of the top 100 best-selling newspapers are in Asia History of Newspapers to Today Commercial Press and Partisan Press  Commercial press: reported on items of commercial interest  Partisan press: affiliated with a political party, did not subscribe to the modern principle of unbiased and impartial coverage and frequently borrowed news from other newspaper Colonial Readership and finances  Subscriptions to papers cost eight to ten dollars per year (beyond reach of most)  Limited to those who were educated, affluent, etc. Golden Age of Newspapers  Benjamin Day: publisher of New York Sun, who originated the penny press in 1833 by offering his paper on the streets for a penny  Penny press: newspapers that sold for a penny, making them accessible to everyone o Supported by advertising rather than subscriptions o Tried to attract large audiences Current Newspaper Industry Issues  Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970: created to preserve a diversity of editorial opinions in communities where only two competing, or independently owned, newspaper exist  Joint Operating Arrangement (JOA): legal agreement permitting newspapers in the same market or city to merge their business operations for economic reasons while maintaining independent editorial operations Newspaper Chains:  Traditionally, newspapers were owned by families, individuals, or political parties general residing in communities their newspaper served  Now, in the US and globally, ownership became increasingly concentrated and most newspapers are part of a group or chain owned by a privately held or publicly traded company  Profit margins have narrowed drastically in recent years  Benefits: o Offer shared resources for news gathering o Can be important in communities where a single advertiser accounts for revenue and can be compromising for small newspapers  Problems: o Can pressure local newspapers for higher profits (eliminating reporters, etc.) o Can weaken the connection between the local media and community Sales and Readership of Newspapers  Citizen journalism  Readership: number or percentage of newspaper readers  Circulation: number of newspaper copies sold or distributed  Advertising generates two thirds of US newspaper revenue; the rest is subscriptions  Things to consider with outlook of newspapers: o Newspaper executives are outsiders o Digital subscriptions are progressing o Understanding and measuring audience has been critical o Local coverage is increasingly important o Smaller but more numerous revenue streams need to be developed o After government bailout of auto industry, advertising increased all media channels Magazines  Feature longer treatment of articles  Magazines are published at regular but less frequent intervals, less time sensitive tends to be more in depth  Typically published on higher quality paper intended to be kept longer than dailies  Magazines are typically national  Muckrakers: journalists who conduct investigative reporting


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