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Journalism 1010 Chapter 4 Notes

by: Abbey Marshall

Journalism 1010 Chapter 4 Notes JOUR 1010

Abbey Marshall
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Thursday quiz and exam
The Future of Media
Robert Stewart
Class Notes
journalism, radio, Media, broadcast, Sound, Audio
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 1010 at Ohio University taught by Robert Stewart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The Future of Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 4 Notes Audio Media: Music recordings, Radio Recording Industry  Functions: o Entertainment o Cultural transmission  History: o Phonograph: first patented by Thomas Edison in 1877 as “talking machine”; used tinfoil cylinder to record voices from telephone conversations o Graphophone: an improvement on Thomas Edison’s phonograph in recording audio, it used beeswax to record sound rather than tinfoil (developed by Alexander Graham Bell and inventor Charles Tainter) o Gramophone: developed by inventor Emile Berliner, it used a flat disc rather than a cylinder to record sound o Recording industry emerged in LA in the 30s o Rock and roll began with blues, gospels, R&B, and rockabilly; took off in the late 50s  Modern o Six major labels (three biggest)  Universal Music Group  Sony Music  Warner Music Group  Control much of the music industry o Independent labels: small companies that produce and distribute records  Estimated 66% of content, but only 20% of sales  Revenues have decreased since 2001, since pirating  49 percent of music sales globally were still CDs in 2013  Global revenues from streaming and subscription services increased 51 percent in 2013  Process: o Creation: signing to the label o Promotion: crucial to commercial success  Payola: cash or gifts given to radio disc jockeys by record labels in exchange for greater airplay or most recent songs (now illegal) o Distribution: although recording formats have varied, the method of distribution has remained essentially unchanged  Long tail marketing: principle that selling a few of many types of items can be as or more profitable than selling many copies of a few items, a practice that works especially well for online sellers such as Amazon and Netflix o Pricing structure: key in determining income for the label, the artist, and others in the distribution chain  Digital Rights management (DRM): technologies that let copyright owners control the level of access or use allowed for a copyrighted work, such as limiting the number of times a song can be copied o More common online o Limits physical copies, encrypting digital music  New business models o iTunes: success in getting consumers to pay for their downloads o Freemium: subscriptions that provide content for free but require a monthly subscription to take advantage of all the site has to offer  Spotify Broadcasting: Radio  Broadcasting: originally referred to the practice of planting seeds by casting them broadly in a field rather than depositing them one at a time o Transmitter sends messages over a part of the electromagnetic spectrum to a receiver or antenna that translates the message to the radio or TV  Radio: most widely available medium of mass communication around the world o At least 99 percent of all US households have at least one radio receiver o Less expensive to produce, transmit, and receive than television o Portable o Doesn’t require literacy  Three types of radio broadcasting: o Amplitude modulation (AM): radio carrier signal modified by variations in wave amplitudes  sold by David Sarnoff o Frequency modulation (FM): radio carrier signal modified by variations in wave length/frequency  Invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong o Satellite: employs an entirely different method of delivering audio programming than traditional AM and FM radio  US department of Agriculture recognized radio’s potential and gathered research and reports and distributed them broadly.  Lee de Forest: considered the father of radio broadcasting because of his invention that permitted reliable voice transmissions for both point-to-point communication and broadcasting  Increasing consolidation  Radio industry today: o Revenues decreasing every year since 2006  Daypart: segment of time radio and television program planers use to determine their primary audience during that time of day or night  Podcasting: o Permit more flexible content delivery o Not required to listening during the actual time of broadcast o Most popular podcast: Serial  Satellite Radio: o Uses digital signals broadcasts from a satellite, beaming the same programming across a much wider territory than its terrestrial cousin


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