New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

AGRI 116 Week 4 Notes

by: Erin Wade

AGRI 116 Week 4 Notes AGRI 116 001

Erin Wade
GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture notes for week 4 Prof Camper GMOs, transgenic crops, and protecting genetic diversity
Plants and Civilizations
Andrew P. Norton
Class Notes
PlantsandCivilizations, AGRI116, Camper, WEEK4, plants
25 ?




Popular in Plants and Civilizations

Popular in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.

Similar to AGRI 116 001 at CSU

Popular in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences


Reviews for AGRI 116 Week 4 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/16
9/12/16   USA ­ 2.3 billion acres of arable land, most of any nation  ­ Now down to less than 400 million  ­ Losing 3000 acres every day to development    Classical Breeding  ­ The intentional selection and crossing of plant varieties to produce plants with desirable  traits   ­ The Green Revolution ­ Norman Borlaug figured out how to create crops with better yield  to help people starving in Mexico  ● Crossed a dwarf wheat variety from Japan with varieties that would grow well in  Mexico and respond well to fertilizer  ● New varieties were so popular that they replaced most of the landrace varieties  (locally adapted) in Mexico, India and Sri Lanka    ­ Criticisms of the Green Revolution  ● Landraces ­ Traditional varieties of crop plants that are locally adopted to the  area where they are grown (climate, pests, local uses, etc.)  ○ have been produced by both unintentional and intentional selection  ○ If you get rid of landraces and use the “better” higher yield crop, and then  something goes wrong and that one dies, then you have nothing  ● Not all farmers has equal access to these new crops because they required  fertilizer and pesticides which are expensive  ● Fertilizer and pesticides cause unintentional environmental contamination    Genetically Modified Organisms  ­ “Any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained  through the use of modern biotechnology”  ● How the genes are produced, not what they are  ­ Gene knockouts, gene editing, gene addition a ​ r​ GMOs if produced by modern  biotechnology, but they are ​not ​GMOs if produced by modern breeding techniques or  mutagenesis     Transgenic crops  ­ A transgenic crop is a crop that contains genes that have been artificially inserted from  another crops to produce desirable traits ­ cannot be accomplished by classical breeding  ­ Methods of transforming cells:  ● Plasmid method ­ insert small segment of DNA into plant cell  ● Biolistics (“gene gun”) ­ blast small pellets of DNA into plant cells  ­ Types of things transgenic crops are created for:  ● Insect resistance  ○ Potato, corn, cotton  ● Disease resistance  ○ papaya  ● Delayed ripening  ○ Tomato (FlavrSaver)  ● Herbicide resistance  ○ Corn, cotton, soybean, alfalfa  ­ Transgenic crops are patentable  ● Company can determine who and how the seed can be used  ● Farmers license the seed to produce crop and are not allowed to save the seeds  for next year    Preserving Genetic Diversity  ­ Plant breeding and industrial agriculture has reduced number of land races and genetic  diversity within crop species  ­ Nikolai Vavilov ­ Had the idea to go to the supposed origins of agriculture to collect as  many different types of seeds as possible to be preserved in order to prevent the  starvation of the world  ● Ironically, he starved to death in prison  ­ WWII Surge of Leningrad ­ scientists starved to death because they refused to eat their  seed samples, saved a lot of plant diversity    USDA set up National Plant Germplasm System  ­ Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) several sites around  world  ­ The National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) at CSU    9/14/16  U.S. Agriculture  ­ Early 1800s  ● 1.5 million farms in the United States (population nearly 5 million)  ­ Early 1900s  ● Just under 7 million farms in the United States (populations just over 127 million)  ­ Today  ● Just over 2 million farms in the United States (population just over 324 million)    Transgenic crops  ­ A transgenic crop is one where we have inserted genes from another crop to get traits  we want    Protect Diversity  ­ Protect landraces ­ locally adapted varieties  ­ Protect centers of origin  ­ Encourage Germplasm Conservation (seed banks)    Vertical Farms  ­ Cultivate edible/medicinal plants in skyscraper greenhouses or other inclined surfaces  ­ Advantages  ● Increase crop production ­ all year round  ● Conservation of resources ­ less spoilage, need less land  ● Protection from “weather events”  ● Potentially more “organic”  ­ Disadvantages  ● Economic feasibility issues ­ power to run farm  ● Energy consumption ­ grow lights, heat  ● Pollution 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.