AGRI 116 Week 4 Notes
AGRI 116 Week 4 Notes AGRI 116 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
9/12/16 USA 2.3 billion acres of arable land, most of any nation Now down to less than 400 million Losing 3000 acres every day to development Classical Breeding The intentional selection and crossing of plant varieties to produce plants with desirable traits The Green Revolution Norman Borlaug figured out how to create crops with better yield to help people starving in Mexico ● Crossed a dwarf wheat variety from Japan with varieties that would grow well in Mexico and respond well to fertilizer ● New varieties were so popular that they replaced most of the landrace varieties (locally adapted) in Mexico, India and Sri Lanka Criticisms of the Green Revolution ● Landraces Traditional varieties of crop plants that are locally adopted to the area where they are grown (climate, pests, local uses, etc.) ○ have been produced by both unintentional and intentional selection ○ If you get rid of landraces and use the “better” higher yield crop, and then something goes wrong and that one dies, then you have nothing ● Not all farmers has equal access to these new crops because they required fertilizer and pesticides which are expensive ● Fertilizer and pesticides cause unintentional environmental contamination Genetically Modified Organisms “Any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology” ● How the genes are produced, not what they are Gene knockouts, gene editing, gene addition a r GMOs if produced by modern biotechnology, but they are not GMOs if produced by modern breeding techniques or mutagenesis Transgenic crops A transgenic crop is a crop that contains genes that have been artificially inserted from another crops to produce desirable traits cannot be accomplished by classical breeding Methods of transforming cells: ● Plasmid method insert small segment of DNA into plant cell ● Biolistics (“gene gun”) blast small pellets of DNA into plant cells Types of things transgenic crops are created for: ● Insect resistance ○ Potato, corn, cotton ● Disease resistance ○ papaya ● Delayed ripening ○ Tomato (FlavrSaver) ● Herbicide resistance ○ Corn, cotton, soybean, alfalfa Transgenic crops are patentable ● Company can determine who and how the seed can be used ● Farmers license the seed to produce crop and are not allowed to save the seeds for next year Preserving Genetic Diversity Plant breeding and industrial agriculture has reduced number of land races and genetic diversity within crop species Nikolai Vavilov Had the idea to go to the supposed origins of agriculture to collect as many different types of seeds as possible to be preserved in order to prevent the starvation of the world ● Ironically, he starved to death in prison WWII Surge of Leningrad scientists starved to death because they refused to eat their seed samples, saved a lot of plant diversity USDA set up National Plant Germplasm System Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) several sites around world The National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) at CSU 9/14/16 U.S. Agriculture Early 1800s ● 1.5 million farms in the United States (population nearly 5 million) Early 1900s ● Just under 7 million farms in the United States (populations just over 127 million) Today ● Just over 2 million farms in the United States (population just over 324 million) Transgenic crops A transgenic crop is one where we have inserted genes from another crop to get traits we want Protect Diversity Protect landraces locally adapted varieties Protect centers of origin Encourage Germplasm Conservation (seed banks) Vertical Farms Cultivate edible/medicinal plants in skyscraper greenhouses or other inclined surfaces Advantages ● Increase crop production all year round ● Conservation of resources less spoilage, need less land ● Protection from “weather events” ● Potentially more “organic” Disadvantages ● Economic feasibility issues power to run farm ● Energy consumption grow lights, heat ● Pollution
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