Psych 102, week 1 notes
Psych 102, week 1 notes Psych 102
Popular in Honors Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 102 at Towson University taught by Amy L. Bennet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
I. Introduction What is Psychology? The science of behavior and cognitive processes Science – empirically tested using scientific method Behaviors – visible actions Cognitive processes – memory, thoughts, etc. Behaviors and cognitive processes together make up Psychology A. History History of Psychology Grew from philosophy and physiology Plato wrote about memory Descartes“I think therefore I am” Also tried to understand the structure of the brain Physiologists: Hippocrates wrote about the 4 humors and used them for explanations for psychological explanations Injuries/accidents Phineas Gage had a metal rod through his head. Physiologists studied him after the accident. He was extremely emotional and childlike. Could not control his emotions or take part in normal social gatherings because of the parts o the brain harmed in the accident. 1. Birth of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Birth of psychology Wanted to use science to study the questions of the mind Studied conscious experience Came up with Introspection: Systematic self observation of one’s own conscious experience Introspection was not reliable because it varies from person to person 2. Late 1800’s – Early 1900’s Structuralism Edward Titchener Studied the structure/elements of consciousness Studied specifically sensation and perception How individual components contribute to the large picture of consciousness Only used introspection Was mean and didn’t believe in any research that didn’t use introspection and or anyone who was not part of his group who studied and was trained with introspection *Reminder* Introspection is too bias and is not reliable* Functionalism William JamesStudied the function of consciousness Heavily influenced by Darwin and was interested in evolution Saw if consciousness had an impact on human’s ability to survive Interested on consciousness’ function Studied gender differences, education, testing, development Approach ore philosophical than scientific Wasn’t imperialistically testing anything (scientifically testing things) Psychoanalysis FreudTheorized about unconscious Saw how the unconsciousness physically effects the body Was a physician not as interested in making studies in the lab but taking care of patients Came up with theories: Psychosexual stages (overeat, chew on pens), id, ego, superego, defense mechanisms (things so hard you repress them) Very controversial because of sexual nature of some theories Idea of patient laying on couch while therapist sits comes from how Freud would talk to patients and reveal what was going on in the unconscious Behaviorism John Watson Only study observable behaviors Wanted a more scientific approach (wanted psychology to be more like physics) Only studied observable behaviors to be able to study more measurable variables No study of consciousness or cognitive processes and only focused on behavior Believed in Nurture over nature Behaviorism became the most influential field in psychology for about 50 years Pavlov Described classical conditioning Started as a physiologist who studied digestion Realized dogs salivated when technicians came into the room instead of when food came out The dogs paired the stimuli of the dogs seeing the technicians and new food would come Influenced Watson and Behaviorism 3. Mid1900’s Behaviorism Continues B. F. SkinnerEmphasized operant conditioning (reward and punishment) Psychologists often say that within the field, Skinner had a more powerful influence than Freud Made Skinner Box studies operant conditioning with lever. Every time animal presses lever gets reward, so animal keeps doing it until reward stops Reward is more successful for people to follow direction than punishment if people don’t do something Stimulusresponse is the only way he studied psychology Humans no different than any other species When animal research starts within psychology Said free will is an illusion because he believed we are all responding to stimuli Humanism Humans are unique and basically good Became about when people got angry with Skinner’s theories and to oppose Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis Says humans are also constantly moving towards selfimprovement Rogers and Maslow Applied PsychologyFocuses on practical problems instead of basic research Began during WWII: psychologists needed to see if people were fit for different parts of the military Psychologists realized they liked practical research and left labs to work with People: Counseling, school, psychology, testing, etc. Cognitive PsychologyEncouraged the study of memory, thought, etc. Behaviorism couldn’t explain all research findings, so they created own part of psychology to study cognitive parts (not always physically visible) Practical problems of WWII people would pull lever to explode plane because they were under pressure and Behaviorism couldn’t explain this “Misbehavior of Organisms”book that made fun of book that Skinner wrote Behaviorism couldn’t explain taste aversions (when you taste something bad and never want to eat it again) Chomsky’s criticism of “Verbal Behavior” (another book by Skinner) All lead to Cognitive Psychology Physiological Psychology/NeuroscienceStudied the biology of behavior Focused on where psychology and biology meet Could then make drug treatments for people with psychological disorders Prefrontal Lobotomies became popularthey damaged the frontal lobe to prevent anxiety but it also prevented other functions of the frontal lobe unable to plan and problem solve 4. Late 1900’s Today Most schools still exist in addition to many more schools Cognitive and physiological are still major schools today Focused on cultural diversity and the effects on psychology after the internet came out making the world much smaller Evolutionary psychology emerges Examines behavioral processes in terms of adaptive value over many generations Common Themes in Psychology Psychology is empirical Based on direct observations Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context Behavior has multiple causes Environmental, genetic, and cultural People’s view of the world is subjective Review Questions When did psychology begin? Who started Behaviorism? Who described classical conditioning? What is a Skinner Box? What is it used to study? Which school focuses on the unconscious? Be prepared to compare and contrast each of the different schools. Be able to compare and contrast at least 2 schools
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