Genetics: Sep. 12-16
Genetics: Sep. 12-16 BIOL 3250
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3250 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Mohamed Salem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Probability and Statistics • Probability- chance something will occur o Number it occurs, divided by the total number of events • Accuracy relies on size of sample • Mutually exclusive- events that cannot occur at the same time (sum rule) • Independent events- not connected; multiply individual possibilities (product rule) • Chi-Square Test- test validity of hypothesis; measure goodness of fit 2 (observed in each category * expected in each category) expected in each category o Multiply everything by the sum of calculations for each category= X 2 o Degree freedom: number of categories – 1 Unique Inheritance Patterns • Follow Mendelian Genetics: law of segregation and law of independent assortment • Environment- high impact on unique inheritance patterns • How can a mutant allele be dominant? o Protein encoded gains a new function o Protein acts antagonistically o Mutant has loss of function; wild type does not make enough proteins -Types: • Incomplete dominance- heterozygous genotype shows intermediate phenotype o Ex. pink flower • Incomplete penetrance- inherited from dominant mutant allele; may or may not be shown o Environment has a large impact o Ex. poly-dactyly • Overdominance- heterozygote is more present than the homozygotes; heterozygote advantage o Molecular level- two alleles that produce different proteins o Ex. sickle cell anemia • Multiple Alleles- for each gene locus only two alleles are found in diploid populations, but within populations, various alleles exist o Ex. coat coat in animals § If a dominant trait is not present, all recessive colors can be present o Typically, a hierarchy in dominance is present
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