Science of Human Nutrition- Week 3
Science of Human Nutrition- Week 3 NUTR 23511-009
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Notetaker on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Tanya R. Falcone (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Science of Human Nutrition Week 3 notes Nutrition concept 4 cont. Toxicities and Deficiencies high levels upset the normal functioning Iron and Calcium will impact each other in the intestine, calcium and iron have to go through the same channel to get to the blood if you are deficient in either one, your body will absorb more if you have enough of either one, your gut will stop transport of both nutrients by closing the channel if one is deficient but one has enough, it closes and the other stays low Ripple effect carbs and vitamin: if you have carbs but no vitamins you won’t get the nutrients and vice versa. need both (EXAM QUESTION) Iron deficiencies in addition to low levels of vitamin A and zinc Nutrition Concept 5 Some nutrients are stored for later use: glucose fat iron calcium vitamin A B12 The body has a low storage capacity for some nutrients vitamin c water Example metabolism decreases when you don’t eat enough Adaptation Feast or Famine Cycle an adaptive mechanism that we have retained since the time of hunting/gathering to prevent deficiencies during famine cycles/months body learns to adapt to store excess energy to prevent any deficiencies when food is much less some of the mechanisms have changed body uses muscle first then fat-which makes you feel weak and tired Ex. Holidays- we eat more and gain weight spring- diet and eat less for summer, fall eat more (yoyo dieting) Nutrition concept 6 Malnutrition Lack or excess of nutrients and calories vitamin A toxicity- can cause deficiencies in the fetus obesity- eating to little, you gain weight bc body is retaining vitamin C- too much causes diarrhea underweight- caused by chronic diseases, eating too little Diseases that interfere with the body’s ability to use the nutrients consumed Diarrhea- nutrients aren’t being absorbed alcoholism- anything more than 1-2 drinks stops digestion body is trying to rid the alcohol, treats it as a toxin Cancer- a cell that creates arteries that attaches to your arteries when you eat, you feed the disease bleeding ulcers HIV/AIDS Genetic traits cholesterol levels- 50% of the population has the genetic material that makes them susceptible to dietary cholesterol (EXAM) hereditary Chronic disease ( diabetes, heart disease, etc >combination) Nutrition concept 7 Groups at Risk women who are pregnant/ breastfeeding-require more calories infants growing children elderly- as we age, our cells age the ill people recovering from illness food shortages, natural disaster, war poverty Nutrition concept 8 Poor nutrition toxicities deficiencies Faulty diets heart disease-high trans fat Hypertension-very high blood pressure high salt will cause constriction of the artery high blood pressure and low blood pressure are equally dangerous Cancer- lack of antioxidants Osteoporosis-low calcium physical activity ex. a large piece of wood vs. termite ridden wood REMEMBER FOR EXAM Nutrition concept 9 Many different foods together provide calories and nutrients in amounts that provide optimal functioning of the body no food contains all the nutrients we need except breast milk for infants Types of foods milk, broccoli, chicken, apples- almost perfect combination of nutrients Nutrient dense foods- foods that contain high amounts of nutrients compared to calories vitamins and minerals broccoli, apples, carrots, avocados, salmon Energy dense foods- a lot of calories packed in a small amount doughnuts, avocados, salmon (EXAM) Empty calorie foods- foods that provide an excess of calories in relation to nutrients doughnuts, cookies, chips Examples low energy density eggs, sausage, toast, yogurt, fruit, 1 cup of coffee Coke High energy density 2 doughnuts and 2 cups of coffee milk Concept 10 No such thing as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ foods healthy vs. unhealthy foods foods to choose more often vs. foods to choose less often quality- what kinds of foods, lean, proteins or processed foods quantity- how much? frequency- how often are you eating these foods? EXAM QUESTION Nutrition and Health- Unit 2 intro health and longevity is affected by: diet lifestyle behaviors- 51% genetics- 19% environment- 20% access to health care-10 % Potential for humans to live is 130 years the average life span is 80-83 years Rickets vs. pellagra deficiencies in children are always going to have more impact than adults they are growing and developing, need more nutrition moderate and sever deficiencies in children are not reversible Adults mild are reversible moderate depends on the type severe are not reversible Rickets- vitamin D deficiency in children symptoms: bowed legs not reversible pellagra- niacin deficiency a type of B- vitamin Symptoms: ring around the neck (dermatitis) 4 D’s (EXAM QUESTION) Dermatitis diarrhea dementia death rd seen more in 3 world countries western countries have more fortified foods Chronic diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration poor nutrient absorption malnutrition death most cases of chronic diarrhea are caused by: lack of immunizations (EXAM QUESTION) lack of IVs and fluids Nutritional state of the nation we over consume supplements we see more toxicities than deficiencies compared to the past Leading cause of death is heart disease (EXAM QUESTION) Diet is also related diabetes caused by excessive body fat, not by excessive sugar intake (EXAM QUESTION) type 2-most common stroke alcohol Cirrhosis of the liver alcohol accidents alcohol Definitions Diabetes A disease characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose Stroke The even that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain suddenly ruptures or becomes blocked, cutting off blood supply to a portion of the brain. – associated with hardening of the arteries in the brain (cerebral vascular accident) Cirrhosis of the liver Degeneration of the liver, usually caused by excessive alcohol intake over a number of years Osteoporosis Condition in which bones become fragile and susceptible to fracture d/t a loss of calcium and other minerals Chronic inflammation Inflammation that lasts weeks, months, or yrs. It is the first response of the body’s immune system to infection or irritation. Inflammation triggers the release of biologically active substances that promote oxidation and other potentially harmful reactions in the body inflammation short term is good, chronic inflammation does damage Chronic diseases obesity most nutritional disorder in the US 2 in 3 adults or children 2 in 5 children we see more cases in children kids gain more because they’re growing (esp. boys) poor diets in schools, a fast pace lifestyle in parents cultural issue increases the risk of heart disease diabetes certain cancers hypertension Hypertension silent killer asymptomatic- can go years without knowing hardening of arteries salt, stress and anxiety can increase blood pressure Iron deficiency most common in women and children Women have a menstrual cycle- reproductive system Iron-core of the cell Lack of iron, lack of red blood cells, lack of transport Children Growth and development Deficiency of iron in children can cause intellectual disabilities Osteoporosis and bone fractures low intakes of calcium and vitamin D teens and young adult years 50% of women do not get enough calcium and vitamin D to reduce risk, supplement with calcium, vitamin D, and include exercise after menopause, women have a higher risk Chronic inflammation and antioxidants diabetes heart disease arthritis etc. oxidative stress free radicals Nutrient Gene interaction cancer related genes sulforaphane- activates a gene that produces a substance that encourages cancer development Cholesterol related gene 50% of the population is genetically susceptible to dietary cholesterol As dietary cholesterol increases blood cholesterol increases Cholesterol non-responders Individuals who lack the trait Blood cholesterol does not increase as dietary cholesterol increases Importance of food choices diet and disease of western civilization high in animal fat high in salt high in sugar low in fiber low in fruits and vegetables should be doing the opposite Adaptation bodies aren’t the same as 40,000 years ago but basics are the same like: feast/famine cycle our mechanisms were built to exert energy to acquire food used to have to hunt, now we just drive to the store to get food Other mechanisms that used to be beneficial that are no longer assets (EXAM) Stimulate hunger in the presence of excess body fat stores Conserve the body’s supply of sodium We need sodium to survive Confer an innate preference for sweet-tasting foods The basis of our cells are glucose Digestive system that functions on a high-fiber diet Our gut needs fiber Slows down absorption of food Cleans out gut prevention fruits and vegetables exercise variety in diet practicing 80%/ 20% healthy eating habits
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