Chemistry: Sep. 12-16
Chemistry: Sep. 12-16 CHEM 1120
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1120 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Ngee S Chong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Thermodynamics Spontaneous Reactions: • Most are exothermic- ∆H < 0 o ex. combustion • Endothermic spontaneous reactions- ∆H > 0 o particles in product are more spread out than starting reactants o ex. cold packs • Gas à liquid à solid o Heat is released • Solidà liquidà gas o Heat is put in Entropy: • Entropy (S)- how dispersed energy is in a system at a temperature o Effected from molecular motion and volume o Increases from: increasing temperature, volume, complexity of structure, and independent particles o Can never be negative (only zero if K is zero) • Second Law of Thermodynamics- entropy of universe is equal to the entropy of the system and the surroundings (greater than zero) • Entropy and microstates o Motion of molecules in quantized- different molecular states are separated by energies o Energy state/energy level- allowed value of energy o Microstate- distribution of particles within energy level • Boltzmann Equation: S = k lnBW o kB= 1.38*10 -23J/K o W = number of microstates • Third Law of Thermodynamics- perfect crystal provides baseline for entropy because at absolute zero (0 K or -273 C), the entropy is zero • Standard Molar Entropy (S )- absolute energy of 1 mole in standard state (298 K and 1 bar of pressure) o Found from how much heat energy a substance must have to change temperature by one value • Types of Molecular Motion (increases with increasing temperature): o Translational- movement through space o Rotational- perpendicular spinning motion around axis o Vibrational- movement of atoms to and away from each other • Entropy Change: ∆S rxn= ∆S sys S final Sinitial
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