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BSC 114 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC 114 Chapter 2 Notes BSC 114

Lauren Dutch
GPA 4.0
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These notes cover all of chapter 2, including information from Stephenson and from the book
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life I. Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds A. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass B. Elements and compounds 1. Elements cannot be broken down to simpler substances 2. Compounds consist of two or more elements in a fixed ratio 3. Compounds have properties different from those of its elements II. An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms A. Atom is the fundamental unit of matter B. Subatomic particles 1. Neutrons are neutrally charged and located in the nucleus  No role in determining chemical properties  Number of protons plus number of neutrons equals the atomic mass  Neutrons can vary without affecting the chemical properties of the element itself  Isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, therefore having a different mass number  Some isotopes are stable but some are unstable and break down into other atoms, e.g. C-14 is unstable and breaks down into N-14 2. Protons are positively charged and located in the nucleus  Determine the chemical identity of an element  Unique and invariant  Number of protons equals the atomic number  Atoms are classified according to atomic number in the periodic table 3. Electrons are negatively charged and located in orbitals  Chemistry is the study of electrons  In an uncharged atom, the number of electrons equals the number of protons  Atoms can gain or lose electrons to form ions  Occupy energy levels/shells  First shell has a capacity of 2  Second shell has a capacity of 8  Third shell has a capacity of 18  Fill in the innermost shells first  Shell closest nucleus has lowest energy  Potential energy due to distance from nucleus  Negatively charged electrons are attracted to positively charged nucleus  Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell/valence shell  An atom with a full valence shell is inert, meaning chemically unreactive  Electron can absorb energy by jumping up to a higher shell  Electron can release energy by falling to its original shell  Goal is to fill the outer shell, e.g. oxygen has six valence electrons with a capacity of eight in the outer shell so it usually forms covalent bonds to fill the outer shell III. The formation and function of molecules depends on chemical bonding between atoms A. Covalent bonds share electrons and are the strongest bonds 1. In water, two hydrogen atoms with one valence electron each share their single valence electron with an oxygen atom to complete the oxygen atom’s valence shell (6 + 2 = 8) 2. Two or more atoms covalently bonded is a molecule 3. A single bond is the sharing of one pair of electrons; a double bond is the sharing of two pairs of electrons 4. Valence is the bonding capacity of an element and is usually equal to the number of electrons needed to complete the valence shell, e.g. carbon’s valence is 4 and nitrogen’s valence is 3 5. Two of the same element covalently bonded are called pure elements, not compounds, because compounds are two or more different elements 6. Electronegativity is the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond  Two most electronegative elements are oxygen and nitrogen  More electronegative atoms pull the electrons towards themselves, resulting in an unequal sharing of the electrons  Polar covalent bonds are formed when an atom is covalently bonded to an atom with more electronegativity. The more electronegative atom receives a partial negative charge while the less electronegative atom receives a partial positive charge  Nonpolar covalent bonds are formed when the two atoms have the same electronegativity (usually when two atoms of the same element are covalently bonded) B. Ionic bonds 1. Ionization is another way to fill an outer shell by either accepting or losing electrons  Cations lose electrons, e.g. magnesium loses 2 electrons to become +2 Mg -1  Anions gain electrons, e.g. chlorine accepts 1 electron to become Cl 2. The bond is created by the opposite charges resulting from ionization, not the transfer of electrons themselves  Any two ions of opposite charges can form an ionic bond; they do not need to have acquired their charge from each other 3. Compounds formed by ionic bonds are called ionic compounds or salts  Crystalline structure C. Noncovalent bonds that are weak 1. Hydrogen bonds occur when two polar molecules are attracted by opposite charges caused by polar covalent bonds  Water is a polar molecule because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so oxygen has a partial negative charge while hydrogen has a partial positive charge. Ammonia is also a polar molecule because nitrogen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so nitrogen has a partial negative charge while hydrogen has a partial positive charge. Because of this, the partial negatively charged hydrogens on the water molecule form a weak hydrogen bond with the partial positively charged nitrogen from ammonia 2. Ionic bonds are based on charge attraction (see part B above) 3. Van der Waals interactions are weak attractions that occur only when atoms are so close that outer electrons barely touch  If they are too close, they will repel each other  Many atoms and molecules must be present for this to work  Important in “lock and key” types of molecular interactions, e.g. binding of hormone to receptor IV. Chemistry versus biochemistry A. Chemistry is the breaking and forming of bonds B. Biochemistry is the breaking and reforming of bonds in living systems


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