Psych Chapter 8 Notes- HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Psych Chapter 8 Notes- HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PSYC 1300
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 8 from “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5 edition Pg 252. Developmental Psychology: “The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span” Physical Domain: Changes that take place in the body Cognitive Domain: Changes in the “brain”, aka thinking, memory, etc. Psychosocial Domain: changes in sociability, how we relate to others -All developmental theories take a position in the nature–nurture debate, and discuss whether development occurs in stage or continuously -Stage theories assume that development happens in phases Pg 253. PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Jean Piaget- Swiss Psychologist, known for helping psychologists get look into the cognitive processes in children How Development Happens Schemes: a set plan, influenced by previous experiences, used to help us adapt to similar situations. Like a set of expectations Assimilation: “The process by which new objects, events, experiences, or information is incorporated into existing schemes” Accommodation: mental process of changing existing schemes to fit in new found information or experiences -Paiget believes schemes set the foundation for the 4 stages of cognitive development The Sensorimotor Stage: Stage where infants understand their world through senses and motor activities, (reflexive behavior becomes intelligent behavior) Object Permanence: The realization that objects and people are still there even when you can’t see them Ex: Peek-a-boo The Pre-Operational Stage: second stage, 2 to 7 years of age Symbolic Function: understanding that one thing can represent another, mentally Ex: a child sees a blanket fort and pretends it’s a cave, or pretends a block is a car Egocentrism: believing that everyone sees the world exactly the same as you Ex: a child would expect their parents to see the “lava” beneath the couches like they do Pg 254. The Concrete Operations Stage: third stage, 7 to 11 or 12 years old Conservation: “The concept that a given quantity of matter remains the same despite being rearranged or changed in appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away.” Reversibility: “The realization that any change in the shape, position, or order of matter can be reversed mentally” Ex: a child may see a broken cookie and think its useless now and cry for a new one With reversibility, they learn that the cookie is still the same substance and can still be eaten despite its changed appearance -At this stage kids still can’t apply logic to hypothetical situations Ex: can’t understand that one day they will need a career or that if Sally is the oldest sibling and Jan is older than Joe, Joe must be the youngest sibling Pg 255. The Formal Operations Stage: Final stage, 11 or 12 years and beyond -At this stage, individuals grow sense of interest in the world and can use H-D Thinking Hypothetico-Deductive Thinking: The ability to base logical reasoning on a hypothetical premise. “If this were to happen, then this could be done or this would be the result…” Naive Idealism: A type of thought in which adolescents come up with their ideal/”perfect” solutions for problems, though they make not be realistic Adolescent Egocentrism: type of thought suggested by David Elkind which takes two forms: 1. Imaginary Audience: “A belief of adolescents that they are or will be the focus of attention in social situations and that others will be as critical or approving as they are of themselves.” social pressure and expectations 2. Personal Fable: “An exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness and indestructibility, which may be the basis for adolescent risk taking.” heightened self-confidence Cross-Cultural Research -There’s a difference in how and when these stages take place in the lives of individuals of different cultures and environments -These stages of development would be affected by: societal emphasis on certain skills and one’s access to formal education “Formal operational thinking is so strongly correlated with formal education that some psychologists have suggested that it may be more a product of specific learning experiences than of a universal developmental process, as Piaget hypothesized” Pg 257. ALTERNATIVE TO PIAGET’S THEORY The Neo-Piagetian Approach -Neo-Piagetians explain age-based differences in performance on the problems that promote the changes in children’s use of their working memories -Younger children take longer to learn new things, thus older children can find solutions to problems much faster Vytogsky’s Sociocultural Approach: child’s learning of new information is greatly supported by the use of language Ex: children talk to themselves when trying to solve a puzzle or do homework Private Speech: talking to one’s self Zone of Proximal Development: “A range of cognitive tasks that a child cannot yet do but can learn to do through the guidance of an older child or adult.” Scaffolding: Instruction from an adult, where the amount of guidance is measured by the child’s learning and ability Ex: When teaching a child to read, an adult may begin by sounding out words for them, but once they can do that on their own, the adult will no longer give the child these hints and only help them as needed Pg 259. KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Measuring Moral Reasoning Kohlberg found that moral reasoning comes in three levels, each with two stages Levels and Stages Preconventional Level: state in which moral reasoning is based on the physical consequences of an act not standards of right or wrong, avoiding punishment Stage 1: “right” is whatever avoids punishment Stage 2: benefits one received for doing a favor or behaving Conventional Level: state in which one’s ideas of right and wrong are set by society Stage 3: moral judgement is based on social acceptance, also called Good Boy- Nice Girl Orientation Stage 4: the need to maintain order Pg 260. Postconventional Level: level at which one judges the standards of right and wrong, weighing to see how they complement or contradict basic human rights -This level is rarely seen before adulthood Stage 5: the person believes that laws are created to protect both society and the individual and should be changed if they fail to do so, individual rights before the law Ex: Declaration of Independence Stage 6: ethical decisions are based on universal ethical principles like life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness AGES, STAGES, AND CULTURE -Moral development is a lifelong process - Kohlberg’s theory was studied in 27 countries. All countries were found to have almost full evidence of Stage 1-4, however, Stage 5 and 6 were only visible in urban and middle class areas, in tribes and villages, these stages were nonexistent. -Despite this evidence, these last stages of development cannot be directly linked to any culture Pg 262. Challenges to Kohlberg’s View -Carol Gilligan argues that Kohlberg’s studies might be gender biased because they all suggested that women only achieve up to Stage 3 while men reach up to Stage 4 -Gilligan explains that women’s morals value more ideas of compassion and concern for others, thus men’s and women’s concept of morality may differ, but their level of moral development and complexity should not differ because of their sex -Kohlberg thinks everyone knows what is moral but don’t necessarily choose to do what’s right, however, researchers haven’t found info on how different moral beliefs affect the way that people behave - Dennis Krebs and Kathy Denton: researchers, found that people exhibit lower levels of reasoning in response to real-life problems than when thinking about hypothetical situations ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT -deals with intellectual development Psychosocial Stages: Erikson’s eight developmental stages (lifelong development), “each defined by a conflict that must be resolved satisfactorily for healthy personality development to occur” Pg 263. Basic Trust Vs Basic Mistrust: infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust depending on the amount of care and love they receive Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt: children aged 1-3 years begin to develop independence by saying No Initiative Vs Guilt: children ages 3 to 6 years old begin to take initiative in regards to their newfound independence Industry Vs Inferiority: school age children begin to enjoy making and doing things -The last few stages happen after puberty but are not tied to age but experience Identity Vs Role Confusion: stage where teens are confused and having an identity crisis, not sure about how they fit in to the “adult world” Intimacy Vs Isolation: stage usually around 18 years where a young adult must find a life partner or accept the single-life Generativity Vs Stagnation: around middle age, adults must interact with the new generation through teaching or mentoring, or else they become stagnant Ego Integrity Vs Despair: the last stage, one must accept themselves and death, otherwise they become depressed and hopeless -People may experience these stages at different times, for example, not everyone finds their identity or career at the same time as others Infancy: first two years Early Childhood: 2 to 6 years Middle Childhood: 6 years to puberty Adolescence: puberty until becoming and adult, which varies from culture to culture Early Adulthood: 18 to 40-45 years of age Middle Adulthood: 45 to 65 years Late Adulthood: 65 years and older PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND INFANCY Conception: the joining of a sperm and an egg Trimesters: 9 months of pregnancy divided into 3 different stages Pg 264. Prenatal Development: Development prior to birth Pg 265. Stages of Prenatal Development Zygote/ Germinal Stage: Cell created by the union of a sperm and egg which then settles in the uterus wall lining The Period of the Embryo: weeks 3 through 8, bone cells develop Embryo: The developing human organism, already resembles a person with limbs Fetus/ The Period of the Fetus: (week 9 until birth), last stage of rapid growth and development of bodily organs and systems -In the last few weeks of pregnancy, the fetus can respond to stimuli Ex: in a study done, a certain story was read to the unborn baby in the womb frequently, after birth, researchers found that after reading different stories, babies would respond to the story they were most familiar with Negative Influences on Prenatal Development -lack of prenatal care can lead to physical and behavioral abnormalities Teratogens: “Harmful agents in the prenatal environment, which can have a negative impact on prenatal development or even cause birth defects.” Critical Period: crucial periods where certain bodily structures develop, teratogens will cause deformities or impede growth in general Pg 266. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A mother’s decision to drink alcohol during pregnancy leads to a baby being born with mental retardation, with a small head and facial, organ, and behavioral abnormalities -Smoking may cause a baby to be born prematurely Birth -Near the end of pregnancy, the mother’s body begins to prepare for birth pain by increasing endorphin levels to numb pain 3 Stages of Going into Labor: Stage 1: “the uterus contracts, and the cervix flattens out and gradually increases in diameter to about 10 centimeters” Stage 2: The baby starts making its way through the vagina Stage 3: woman’s uterus releases the placenta Neonate: a newborn baby Low-Birth-Weight Baby: A baby weighing less than 5.5 pounds Preterm Infant: Baby born on the 37 week or earlier Perceptual and Motor Development Reflexes: “Built-in responses to certain stimuli that neonates need to ensure survival in their new world” (ex: coughing, blinking, and searching for the mother’s breast) -Newborns are sensitive to sounds and touch. They can distinguish between male and female voices and prefer females. Robert Fantz: found out that we can identify what objects a baby is interested in by how long it stares at it Visual Cliff: An apparatus designed by Gibson and Walk, used to test depth perception in infants made babies crawl on a glass surface, half was covered in cloth to look like a flat surface and half was made to look deep, babies tended to avoid the deep side, seeming like they already knew that depth meant they could fall Maturation: the changes in motor ability that are genetically a part of a child’s development like sitting, standing, and crawling -the development of motor skills can be infringed upon by malnutrition or other disturbances Temperament: “A person’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to the environment” 3 Types of Temperament Found: Easy: children with pleasant moods, good behavior, and stable sleeping and eating patterns (40% of children) Difficult: were easily annoyed, moody, and bodily functions showed instability (10% of children) Slow-To-Warm-Up: were in a slightly negative mood and were slow to adapt (15% of children) The other 35% of children were hard to categorize into a group -Child’s behaviors tend to mock those of parents and be hereditary Attachment: strong bond to mother or caregiver Contact Comfort: comforting coming from bodily contact -In a study done, baby monkeys were presented with two (metallic) mother figures, one that provided the monkey with a milk bottle and another that provided no support but was covered in soft cloth It was found that the monkeys were attached to the cloth mother because they could hold her (contact comfort) and preferred contact to food Separation Anxiety: A toddler’s fear when the parent they have grown attached to leaves (between 8 to 24 months but more prominent between 12 to 18 months) Stranger Anxiety: A fear of strangers (strongest in the 1 year but declining in the 2 year) Mary Ainsworth: researcher who observed mother-child interaction and found 4 patterns of attachment 1. Secure Attachment: distressed when separated from mother and looked t caregiver as a safety base/spot (~65% of children) 2. Avoidant Attachment: child ignores the mother and does not get upset when the mother leaves, distant relationship (~20% of babies) 3. Resistant Attachment: child prefers close contact to mother and are angry when the mother has left them, protesting her departure through endless crying (~10-15% of kids) 4. Disorganized Attachment: child seems disoriented, tending to look away or seem frozen when being held by mother (~5-10% of children) -Children with a bond to their fathers tend to have higher IQs and better social skills. These children tend to be less impulsive, violent, and better at coping with frustration Pg 271. EARLY AND MIDDDLE CHILDHOOD Phases of Language Development Babbling: uttering of basic speech sounds (phonemes), (which begins between 4 and 6 months) -Babies all over the world, even deaf ones, babble the same types of sounds showing that language is a biological factor Overextension: Child doesn’t know the specific word for the act or object they are referring to so they use the name of a similar object to refer to a broader set of items even though it is not an appropriate reference point Ex: a child calling all four legged animals “doggies” Underextension: “Restricting the use of a word to only a few, rather than to all, members of a class of objects.” Ex: a child identifies a poodle as a dog but sees a German shepherd and won’t call it a dog as well Telegraphic Speech: labeled by Roger Brown as short, rigid sentences that follow a strict word order and contain only essential words to their message Overregularization: act of inappropriately applying the grammatical rules when using plural words or transitioning between past and present tense Theories of Language Development Learning Perspective: Language is learned in the same way that other behaviors are learned, through practice and imitation -B.F. Skinner: found that parents praise correct grammar and reprimand bad grammar Nativist Perspective: by Noam Chomsky, claims the brain uses a Language Acquisition Device which help children learn grammar and language easily and naturally Pg 273. Motherese: “highly simplified speech with shorter phrases and sentences and simpler vocabulary,” requires much repitition Interactionist: explains that language is a naturally instilled part of a child’s development that has not only to do with their biology, but is affected by the environment as well Literacy Phonological Awareness: awareness of sound patterns in a language and how these sounds are represented in written words -Phonological skills help children learn to read faster and even help learning to read another language easy SOCIALIZATION Socialization: “process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values” Parenting Styles: methods parents use to control children’s behavior Authoritarian Parents: Parents who believe “because I said so” is enough reason to demand obedience, quite strict and don’t leave much room for discussion, punish bad behavior (usually physically) children tend to develop low social and academic skills Pg 274. Authoritative Parents: Parents who set high yet realistic expectations for their child, are very open to communication and providing support children tend to be greatly intellectual, self-confident, and independent Permissive Parents: Parents who lack authority and allow children to make own decisions Permissive Indulgent: warm and supportive to show love -this parenting may lead to immaturity and impulsiveness Permissive Neglectful: lack warmth or care for children, allow them to do what they want because they don’t care -this parenting may lead teens to get involved in alcoholism, promiscuous sex, etc. Peer Relationships: children make friends around the age of 3 or 4 simply seeing a friend as someone they play with, however, as they get older, making friends becomes a matter of being part of a group, one where individuals share similar traits like gender, race, and social class -Peer Rejection can lead a child to aggression or acts of bullying GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Gender Roles: Cultural expectations on how each gender should behave Pg 275: Androgen: Male sex hormone -females who have been exposed to more androgen (through situations like sharing a womb with a twin brother) have been found to prefer more masculine toys -gender roles are most affected by one’s environment that biology/genetics Sexual Orientation: label on the sexual attraction spectrum Cognitive Developmental Theory: proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg, Gender Identity: by age 2 or 3, children begin to identify as a certain gender, boy or girl Gender Stability: by age 4 or 5, children are aware that their gender is permanent forever Gender Constancy: by age 6 to 8, children realize that activities or interests don’t change your gender -Kohlberg claims that once a child realizes they will be the same gender forever, they tend to look for same-sex role models to imitate Gender-Schema Theory: proposed by Sandra Bem, explains that children are motivated to behave according to gender standards or stereotypes for acceptance, also says that once children have identified their gender, they grow an intense desire to fit into the standard for that gender ADOLESCENCE: transition from child to adult Puberty and Sexual Behavior Puberty: “A period of rapid physical growth and change that culminates in sexual maturity” Adolescent Growth Spurt: acceleration in growth Secondary Sex Characteristics: physical characteristics not directly involved in reproduction but that differ between boys and girls like breasts, pubic hair, or voice change Menarche: onset of menstruation -faster physical development in boys comes in as a benefit in regards to athletic ability and self-esteem yet may lead to aggression towards undeveloped peers and substance abuse -faster physical development in girls tends to make girls self-conscious and may lead to eating disorders, earlier sex experiences, teen pregnancy, and substance abuse, whereas late-developed girls also tend to feel stress from the slow body changes -teen pregnancy was MUCH more prevalent in the 1960s than now, but 80% of those teen girls were married versus now where the rate unmarried teen moms has risen, making only 20% of teen moms married -Teens who are less involved in sexual behavior tend to attend religious services more frequently, have higher grades, be more involved in sports, have both biological parents, etc. Pg 278. EMERGING ADULTHOOD Emerging Adulthood: proposed by Jeffrey Arnett, “period from the late teens to early 20s when individuals explore options prior to committing to adult roles” Glen Roisman + Colleagues: find that adults must address developmental tasks in academic, social, romantic, work-related, and conduct-related areas EARLY AND MIDDLE ADULTHOD Pg 279. PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE CHANGES Presbyopia: unavoidable condition encountered in one’s 40s by which one’s eyes have difficulty adjusting to near distances Menopause: a woman stops menstruating, typically known by symptoms of hot flashes and mood swings -Men, on the other hand, begin to decrease their testosterone and semen production as well as decreased sex drive in old age Crystallized Intelligence: verbal ability and accumulated knowledge (increases with age) Fluid Intelligence: abstract reasoning and mental flexibility (peaks in early 20s and decline slowly as people age) SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1960: median of marriage age MEN: 23, WOMEN: 20 Current: median of marriage age MEN: 28, WOMEN: 26 Living Arrangements: where one lives and with whom is an important factor of adulthood and sociability. Some live with married companion, some live alone, some live as an unmarried couple, some just have roommates Marriage and Divorce: 80% of adults will marry at least once. Fun Facts on Marriage: -Married people tend to be less depressed and healthier -Teenage marriages, non-religious marriages, and individuals with divorces parents are more likely to end in divorce Parenthood: the stage of having children -Once married, many couples typically come to have children. Before this role however, many married individuals can be found to be taking on stereotypical roles. For example, a woman would tend to focus more on chores while the man would begin focusing more on how to advance his career. Careers: -Personality and identity come into play when one finds a career Job Satisfaction: how much we enjoy our job (can affect how well the job is done) The Myths of Middle Age: Empty Nest Syndrome: when grown children leave the home and parent finds time to rediscover their identity Mid-life Crisis: anxiety coming from one realizing they have lost their youth Stressor Overload: when an adult must balance caring for a teen, while managing a job, and caring for their elderly parents as wellclaimed by David Almeida and colleagues Pg 285. LATER ADULTHOOD General Slowing: A process the breaking down of the myelin sheath lead to a slowing of physical and mental functions, decreased neural transmissions, aka signals from neuron to neuron - “Older adults who keep mentally and physically active tend to retain their mental skills as long as their health is good” -Factors that affect cognitive ability in old age are higher education, income, etc. Social Adjustment: -Situations like retirement or losing a spouse would require that one adjust to new social situations and environments Successful Aging: “Maintaining one’s physical health, mental abilities, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life as one gets older.” Death Stages of Coming to Terms with Death: studied by Kubler-Ross 1. Denial: shock or disbelief at knowledge of illness 2. Anger: resent those that are young and healthy 3. Bargaining: individual may try to ask God for health in return for “good behavior” 4. Depression: feel sense of loss for past and future situations 5. Acceptance: no longer fear or struggle with death -Some of these stages may not be visible in other cultures as some see dying as part of a natural cycle or like Mexicans, some may see death as a time to reflect one the good in one’s life and even celebrate it (Day of the Dead) Passive Euthanasia: person decides to end use of life support Active Euthanasia: using a fatal drug or injection with medical support to speed up “assisted suicide”/death process Hospice Care: like a nursing home but specifically those who WILL die soon Grieving Process: process of mourning after someone’s death
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