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Oxtoby Chapter 3 Notes

by: Tiffany Caruso

Oxtoby Chapter 3 Notes 01:840:212

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Religion > 01:840:212 > Oxtoby Chapter 3 Notes
Tiffany Caruso

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About this Document

Notes taken on Oxtoby Chapter 3 Jewish Traditions
Religions of the Western World
Professor Surowitz
Class Notes
world religions, religion, judaism, oxtoby, religions, jewish studies, Jews, Hebrew religion, Hebrew Bible, Hebrew
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Caruso on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:840:212 at Rutgers University taught by Professor Surowitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Religions of the Western World in Religion at Rutgers University.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Oxtoby Chapter 3 Thursday, September 15, 20166:47 AM Jewish Identity as an Ethnic Religion - Jewishness can be grounded in religious, ethnic, or cultural elements, or any combination of them ○ Some people follow Halakhah ○ Some people say they're Jewish because their Parents were Jewish (this is most people in North America and Israel) ○ Some believe that a female rabbi is preposterous and doesn’t agree with Halakhah ○ Haredim- a member of a rigorously observantsub-group of Orthodox Jews  Reason for Judaism to be alive today Earliest Jewish History: The Biblical Story - Hebrew Bible- to Jews as the Tanakh and Christians as the Old Testament ○ Tanakh composedover 800 years (Between 10th and 2nd century BCE) made up with 24 books ○ Divided into 3 sections  Torah □ Designates the law or instruction as a whole □ Also, refers to the first 5 books  Genesis  Exodus  Leviticus  Numbers  Deuteronomy  These books coverthe history of the Israelites ◊ Creation of world until entry to promise land  They instruct people on how to live moral and ritually accept lives  Known as Pentateuch  Most sacred of Bible  Nevi'im □ Hebrew word for Prophets (men like Moses,who were believed to speak for God)  Ketuvim □ Variety of material including:  Songs  Prayers  Wisdom literature  Historical Texts - A Biblical Narrative as Sacred History ○ Interpretation from scholars that Israelites are just stories who didn’t even exist, or if it really happened ○ Some are actual proven historic information ○ Have no real evidence of Abraham, his son Isaac, Isaac's son Jacob and Moses ○ But found Archaeological evidence of David in 1993 in Israel - The Creation of Humanity ○ 2 different stories  First one in Genesis states that man and women were created at the same time making them equals  Second one states man was created first, then later on the woman to be his helper created out of one of his ribs □ Midrash- dated to the fourth or fifth century CE proposes that "the rib is a hidden part of the body, and therefore it was chosen to teach womenmodesty" hidden part of the body, and therefore it was chosen to teach womenmodesty" □ This story has been used to justify male dominance □ Because women were made from men, they are here to serve men, not God - The Origins of "Israel," Hebrew," "Jew," and "Semitic" ○ Israel  "the one who struggles with God"  Abraham's grandson Jacob wrestled with a divine being and was then renamed Israel ○ Hebrew(s)  Fugitives, mercenaries,people living on the periphery of regular society  Refer to Israelites ○ Jew(s)  Derived from Judah (the name of the territory that in ancient times was considered to be the Jewish homeland). ○ Semitic  Derived from "Shem" (the man from whom both Jews and Arabs were said to have descended, son of Noah). - When was the Torah written down? ○ Some say written my Moses on Mount Sinai ○ Some say it was written by multiple beings at different times  DocumentaryHypothesis □ written by humans, not divine beings ○ Exodus  Some say 13th century BCE when most of those historical events occurred  Some argue it was in 8th century when Assyrians tookover Jerusalem in fear of losing oral history  Some argue the 6th century after the fall of Jerusalem to Babylonians in fear of losing oral history - Relationship as Covenant: The Israelites and their God ○ Israelites God's "chosen people" ○ Covenant- treaty, alliance or pact  Marriage uses this  God promises Noah in Genesis that he will never send a flood to destroy the world  All prophets made covenants with God - Of Kings and Messiahs ○ David  Reign begun around 1000BCE was Israelites greatest king  His son who inherited his land was King Solomon □ Solomonbuilt the first temple in Jerusalem □ After Solomon'sdeath in the 2nd half of the 10th century, the kingdom was split into 2  Israel in the North  Judah in the south - The Exile in Babylonia ○ 722 BCE fell to the Assyrians ○ Israelites in the south fell to Babylonia in 586 BCE  Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed  Babylonian exile- sent Israelites to Iraq in order to prevent trouble and disrest □ This marked the beginning of Diaspora - the dispersion of Jews outside Israel ○ Babylonia itself was conquered by the Persian Empire in 539 BCE  Allowed People of Judah to return to homeland but many stayed in Babylonia (Iraq), which thus creates an important center for Judaism in Babylonia until the 10th century □ Jewish Babylonians created the Babylonian Talmud 6th century CE


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