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Week 4 notes

by: Andrew Griffin

Week 4 notes ANTH 102 001

Andrew Griffin
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These are the notes we took in class this week!
Understanding Other Cultures
Courtney Lewis
Class Notes
social, Anthropology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Griffin on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Courtney Lewis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Understanding Other Cultures in ANTH at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Auth 102 Week 4 Notes Chapter 7- Social Groups and Social Stratification Does race exist? Where? • Biologically: Skin color as evolutionary response to UV radiation. Our skin color is the balance between our skin getting enough sun but maintaining the nutrient called folic acid (folate). • Genetics: gives you the information you need to determine the location of which your family tree originated. Therefore they cannot tell us about race • Disease: an example of this would be sickle cell, which developed biologically for immunity to malaria, but doesnt just affect one population. Another example would be age-related muscular degeneration and how most people thought it only affected white males but actually can affect any adult who had a very severe illness as a child. One more example would be hypertension and that it only affects minorities but actually its related to stress and it makes sense for a minority with a lot of adversity to have a lot of stress in return • Socially: has become something about peoples ability and is relatively a new way to categorize people in a way that different from other categories • beauty, intelligence, athletic ability, etc. • Politically: determines friendship and alliance. It is a tool that has become a weapon to manipulate society and assert power \ Answer to the question: Yes, though it may not exist scientifically, it is a living concept that is in the form of racism Racism Racism = Prejudice + Power (structural/systemic) • Systemic Level Racism: 1. Institutional Racism: discriminatory practices and polices of particular institutions that routinely produce racially inequitable outcomes for people of color. An example 1 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 is a school system funding more, and providing a better education to an all white school rattan than a non white school 2. Structutal Rasicm: racial bias among institutions and across society. It involve the societal factors including history, cultre, ideology, and interactions of institutions and policies that favor white people and discriminate again non whiles 3. Aversive Racism : the subtle racial behaviors of a racial group who rationalizes their aversion to a particular group by appeal to rules or stereotypes. People who behave this way may profess egalitarian beliefs, and will often deny their racially motivated behavior, but they change their behavior when dealing with a member of a minority group. It is more of an internal ambivalent attitude towards the subject Steps towards reducing Racism: I. Learn to see: learning to acknowledge things like segregation( church, housing,places) and understanding why it is the way it is II. Acknowledge Self Behaviors: question your own self segregation (were you raised that way?) III.Broader Action: changing the negative self behaviors, working on societal behaviors, acknowledging the fact you have been racist in the past Part 1. Social Group - A cluster of people beyond the domestic unit who are usually related to each other on grounds other than kinship. In other words, its the people you aren’t related to you but are similar to you • Primary Social Group: people who interact with each other and know each other personally - ex: your friends on facebook • Secondary Social Group: People who identify with each other on some basis but who may never meet each other or know each other personally - ex: the “people you may know” section on your facebook - other characteristics: • degrees of formality/informality 2 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 • Connections to modes of livelihood - industrial/informatics societies have a whole carpet, perhaps compensating for less important role of kinship - varieties of social groups friendships- close social ties between atleast two people, usually informal, • voluntary, and usually involving face to face interaction (exept for over social media) Maybe contribute to economic security. Sometimes related to gender, age, class, ethnicity, and institutions. Maintained through balanced exchanged like shaping stories. - look at the Male Friendship among the Urban Poor of Guyana: The Importance of sharing stories • clubs and fraternities and sororities- social groups that define membership in terms of a sense of shared identities and objectives. Provide social and psychological supper to members but have political and economic functions too (connections, networking, jobs) • counter cultural groups - groups formed by people outside the “mainstream: who resit conforming to dominate cultural patterns. Members desire to be identified with a special groups such as: - body modification group: the goal is to modify any part of your body. Purpose is to make the body conform to ideals of beauty, to mark membership in a group, and to mark social status. Also can convey information about an individual’s qualities or personal accomplishments. This category also includes dieting, bodybuilding, tanning, and cosmetic surgery because you are changing the appearance of your natural self. • How do you and those around you modify your bodies? What is the notification behind modifying your body? What are the potential benefits and risk (physical, emotional, social) of such body modification practices? • review: Micro-Credit Lending Groups are Thriving • Cooperatives- this is a form of economic group in which surpluses are shared among the members, each person has one vote, and commonly they are agricultural and credit cooperatives. Such as Mondragon, a finance company. 3 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 - Example: Guna Woman's Craft Cooperative- the goal of this is to study cooperatives related to production and sale of molas. They are are made by people of Panama to help promote steadier earnings. Part II: Social Stratification - Hierarchal relationships among different groups including outright discrimination i.e The Roma of Eastern Europe • Achieved status: Class and Education • Ascribed Status: race, ethnicity, caste, gender - Status: refers to a persons position in society • each status comes with a “script” for how to behave, look, consume, etc. • Societies vary in terms of how many status exist, how they are marked, and the degree of differences among them in terms of entitlements and quality of life • Two types of Perceived Status: 1. Ascribed : system of social stratification based on division of people into unequally ranked groups - each system has local features like the concept of “mestizaje”, or Racial mixture, in central and south america - must know the local system of categories to understand the dynamic of inequality that go with them - Race: The biological grouping of people. Recent for of social inequality, unequal meeting of two formally spectate groups through colonization, slavery, and other large groups, no biological proof but exist socially as racism • example of extreme racism: Apartheid in South Africa - Ethnicity: sense of group members based on a shared sense of identity such as a shared history, territory, language, religion, or a combination of them all • Diaspora population: a dispersed group living outside their original homeland 4 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 • Culturama- The Roma of Eastern Europe - also known by the derogatory term “gypsies” - Europe’s largest minority group (7-9 mil) - they are 10 percent of the population - the status and living conditions but usually they are very poor and lack decent housing - it is slowly improving in Hungary when they joined the E.U but Slovakia is doing little to improve their lives - Caste: social stratification system linked with Hinduism, based on a persons birth into a group, • Varnas (4 major social categories, plus out of caste, outcast) • The American South- Jim Crow Laws: - dictated marriage (miscegenation laws) - Segregation (Laws) - Ritual (Churches) - 2. Achieved: a person or or groups position in society defined in economic terms, as achieved, the the individual i.e labor unions, expensive clubs - class is not primarily achieved but born into - U.S promotes Meritocratic Individualism ideology (you get out what you put in) - Civil Society: is diverse interest groups outside of the government that organize aspects of life. They vary in terms of how free from the government they actually are. • Case in China by the Chinese Women’s movement; overseen by the gov • Activist Groups: formed with the goal of protesting conditions such as political repression or human rights violations. They can be anti government or anti big power structures i.e the CO-MADRES 5 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 - Social Capital, Social Movements, and Social Media: • Social Capital: the intangibles resources that exist in social ties, trust, and cooperation • New Social Movements: social activist groups that emerged in the late twentieth century - examples: usually are formed by oppressed minorities like indigenous groups, ethnic groups, women, and the poor. This has increased with the use of social media and technology 6


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