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Week 5 Notes

by: Andrew Griffin

Week 5 Notes HIST 102 004

Andrew Griffin
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These are the notes from this past week
European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century
Thomas Leekan
Class Notes
european, history, french, revolution




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Griffin on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 004 at University of South Carolina taught by Thomas Leekan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Hist 102- Week 6 The Industrial Revolution Ending of the French revolution - Key reasons that the committee of public safety was able to seize power and create a revolutionary dictatorship in 1793 that included the use of terror: • the desire to create an egalitarian “Republic of Virtue” based on Rousseau’s General Will • royalist and anti-revolutionary rebellions in the provinces - going on since the beginning of the revolution and it was based around people thinking that the revolution went to far. Some people thinking that they should restore the absolutism and those who were for ending a central power • the creation of a coalition against France that included Austria, Prussia, Great Britain and the Dutch Republic - many believe this is the main reason they need to steer the war effort, including fixing prices and raising a mass army • - also a very important reason • lingering problems of sovereignty after the death of the King - power vacuum in France after Louis’s execution and the french found it difficult to place someone else in the leadership position: who is going to replace the king? • France’s inexperience with Republic forms of government after two centuries of Absolutism Robespierre: “The Incorruptible” - devoted follower of Rousseau and the Radical Republicanism of the General Will - originally opposes capital punishment and restrictions of the press - see’s need for a “Revolutionary Dictatorship” to mobilize the war, fix prices, and destroy internal and external enemies of the revolution - helps to pass Law of Suspects which authorizes the creation of revolutionary tribunals for those suspected of “treason” against the republic punishable by death 1 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 - he truly believed that terror was needed to save the revolution War and Fear - not only were revolutionaries directing the war, they were spreading revolutionary ideas to all of europe - called the “Levee en Masse” meaning a mass of modern inscription meaning they drafted men from France to fight in the war effort - was seen as very patriotic to be in this large army - it was radical because everyone got involved, women would sew and factories were opened to make weapons - *was the first example of modern warfare” - also inflation was high so Robespierre had fixed prices made on regular commodities (such as bread) Death of Marat: June 13, 1793 - tied up men woman and children, and drowned them by dropping them into a icey lake. Thousands of people were killed in this - Marat was a revolutionist murdered in his bath by a women named Charlotte Cordea who disagreed with the revolution The Guillotine and the Terror: The Razor of Equality - 40,000 perish, many are imprisoned (people died from starvation and disease) • overwhelming majority are Third estate • even vague suspicious of counter revolution ideas, such as a comment or remark, could be punished by death. This causes people to make this accusations a personal attack - The end of the Enlightenment: Major Enlightenment Figures are executed - the Guillotine was seen as an enlightenment idea because the death would be quick, painless, and simple as opposed to pre enlightenment executions which were crude, violent and a dramatic public spectacle 2 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 The Republic of Virtue: Revolutionary Culture - was anticlerical: meaning that people are against the church because it was seen that the power of the church was corrupt so they needed to secularize the government • example of this would be the act that made divorce or women easier by making it a civil act rather than a religious sanction, introduced the metric system, abolished slavery in their colonies - creating a political culture that reflects Sovereignty of People • people did this through symbolism in areas are clothing (dressed more commonly and wore the revolutionary cap) and by planting “liberty trees” • these symbols would become a sign of the alliance of people - La Grande Nation- On behalf of ALL Humankind Creation of the Lourve as a Muesem - place where they placed all the paintings of the monarch De-Christianization: Erasing the Memory of Devine Right - desecration of corpses of former monarchs and removing the heard of the French kings off the facade of Notre Dam - did this as a symbol of rooting out the monarchs from french history Festival of the Supreme Being: June 8, 1794 - an attempt to replace the authority of the church with a secular one - was based around deist ideas that God set a plan in action and its the peoples right to let the actions play out The beginning of Time: Sept 22, 1792- A New Republican Calendar - the attempt to create a calendar that said the beginning of time was 09/22/1792 which marks the day of the french republic was formed 3 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 - this is very arrogant because its irrational and was poorly planned and the Gregorian System returned in 1806 Toward a Napoleon Empire … - authoritarian rule on a populist basis, but without representative government - retains certain gains of the revolution: 1. civil equality (for men) 2. religious toleration 3. educational access Things to think about? 1. Were the achievements of the French Revolution worth its human cost? 22 years of war, killing over a million people, and then the period of terror which kills • another large amount of people • purpose of the revolution was to create a government for the people and many historians have mixed feelings because the ordinary people who didn't have a voice never actually gained a voice because the age of terror • another purpose was for women to gain more responsibility in the government which they did have a small part in while helping with war efforts, but also declines when the domestic role is seen as natural for women • economically france declines from the political disruption that dissipated the entrepreneurship and increased the agricultural economy 4


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