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Chapter 2 and 3 Notes

by: Hanna Roberts

Chapter 2 and 3 Notes COM 110

Marketplace > Illinois State University > COM 110 > Chapter 2 and 3 Notes
Hanna Roberts

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Notes for chapter 2 and 3. I took these out of class so they are MUCH more detailed than the in class notes.
Communications as Critical Inquiry
Lisa Martin
Class Notes
communication, confidence, Ethical
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Roberts on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 110 at Illinois State University taught by Lisa Martin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Natural Nervousness ● Provides speakers with the necessary energy to give successful presentations  ● Skilled public speakers use nervousness to their advantage ● Difference between natural nervousness and intense anxiety towards public speaking ○ Anxiety more closely associated with communication apprehension and an extreme uneasiness  about the prospect of giving a speech ○ Anxiety can be managed Communication Apprehension Defined ● Communication apprehension is one of the most widely studied phenomena ● Communication apprehension: an individual's fear or anxiety associated with real or  anticipated communication with others ● In public speaking, anxiety is heightened by concern about the outcome of the performance  (being evaluated/graded) and uncertainty of the situation (not knowing how audience will react) ● Measurements created for individuals to assess their level of fear in each of these areas Causes of Communication Apprehension ● Heredity ○ May be born with enduring personality trait that causes them to be apprehensive ■ Genetic predisposition for feeling anxious when communicating ○ Perhaps grandparent passed on the trait ○ Trait­like communication apprehension ■ Results in people feeling anxious in most situations ■ Very limiting in persons relational and professional success but can be managed with proper  training ○ Most are not born with public speaking apprehension, but rather learn to become anxious ● Learned Apprehension ○ Not born with apprehension, learn to become apprehensive ○ Situation­based apprehension: occurs when we are anxious temporarily because of a particular  event at a particular time ■ E.g., anxious at a job interview because you really want the job ○ Audient­based apprehension: occurs when we are anxious because of the individuals with  whom we will be communicating ■ May be more anxious talking to adults than children ■ May be uneasy in front of strangers ○ Context­based apprehension: causes us to be anxious in certain situations such as one­on­one,  groups, meetings, or public speaking.  ■ Socialized into thinking we are supposed to be apprehensive ■ Not born with communication anxieties; taught to be apprehensive ■ Child reinforcement: something in your past (E.g., show and tell that went bad or got a negative response from a teacher) has caused you to be apprehensive about future communication  encounters ○ Skills Deficit  ■ Skills Deficit: perhaps source of communication apprehension is neither because you were born  with it nor because you learned it, maybe you are fearful of public speaking because you simply  do not know how to do it effectively. That is, you lack the skills and confidence to be a good  public speaker Effects of Communication Apprehension ● Internal Effects ○ Internal effects stem from psychological issues that may have physical effects ■ Audience is unaware of these anxieties (most of the time) ● External Effects ○ External effects stem from behavioral issues such as avoidance or disfluency ○ May avoid communication all together; avoidance ○ Vocal disfluencies; repetition of filler words Managing Communication Apprehension ● Several techniques: systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, visualization, and skills  training ● Goal is to manage apprehension, not eliminate it ● Systematic Desensitization ○ Systematic Desensitization: formal term for learning how to relax by using a number of  strategies ○ Most useful when symptoms are physical  ○ Use music that encourages you to relax ○ Muscle relaxation  ■ Identification of symptoms is important for this ■ E.g., shortness of breath, do deep breathing exercises  ■ E.g., hands and legs get shaky, tense and release those muscles 10 times ■ Releases adrenaline  ○ Gradually introduce yourself to source of your fear over time ■ E.g., give your speech to just a few people, then repeat the speech several times gradually adding people to the audience each time ● Cognitive Restructuring  ○ Cognitive restructuring: directly linked to the psychological efforts of apprehension; involves  getting people to identify their worst fears and to restructure, or think differently, about them ○ Replace irrational thoughts with rational ones ○ Brainstorm worst case scenarios and then think logically about why they might be unreasonable  or how you can prevent them from happening in the first place  ○ Reframe thinking about public speaking by focusing on how rewarding or how fun it can be to  inform, persuade, or entertain an audience ○ Empowering to realize your words may actually change attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors of your classmates ● Visualization ○ Often used by athletes ○ Good if you suffer from the psychological effects of communication apprehension  ○ E.g., if you visualize yourself giving a successful presentation, then you may boost your  confidence before your presentation ● Skills training ○ Skills training involves learning about the steps necessary to plan and present a public speech as well as gaining practice in doing so ○ Once you learn one skill, you move onto the next ○ No individual skill is very difficult, and once you put them all together and practice, you may  even reduce the internal and external effects of communication apprehension  Ethics and Ethical Communication ● Ethics: a set of standards that offer guidance about the choices we make and explain why we  behave as we do ○ Tells us what is right or wrong and good or bad ○ Provide standards and rules to guide our behavior ● Ethical communication: results when we apply ethical standards to the messages we produce  and consume Ethical Standards ● Often think in terms of what is legal or moral ● We should consider our ethical practices as we both produce and consume messages ● Standards vary by culture and individuals within a culture ● A Political Perspective ○ Political Perspective: the first standard that helps us to understand ethical practices based on a  value system ■ First step in using a political system as a standard for making decisions is to understand the  values of that political system ○ Even with one particular political system and culture, people do not always agree on which view  should prevail when competing values come into conflict  ● A Dialogical Perspective ○ Dialogical perspective: first articulated by sociologist Martin Buber; perspective says that  interactions between people should promote the development of self, personality, and knowledge ○ Each person in a communication event should make decisions based on their ability to improve  mutual understanding and dialogue between participants ○ Participants should listen to all sides of an issue before making an ultimate decision  ● A Human Perspective ○ Human perspective: perspective says that we have a responsibility both to ourselves and to  others to be open, gentle, compassionate, and critically reflective in our choices ○ Requires us to consider the implications of our message making and to outweigh the costs and  benefits of exercising our right to free speech  ● A Situational Perspective ○ Takes into account the context of the communication event ○ Where audience analysis comes in ○ Contextual factors that guide communication decision making: ■ Role of the communicator for the audience ■ What is reasonable/appropriate for the audience ■ How aware audience is of communicators techniques ■ What the audiences goals and values are ■ What the audiences standards are for ethical communication  ○ With freedom of speech comes the option for people not to listen to your message ○ Society of Professional Journalists is a group that hopes to raise the stature and ethical practice  of journalism in this country by encouraging its members to “seek truth and report it” Ethical Credo ● Credo: because of various perspectives that may be used in decision making, scholars from the  National Communication Association (NCA) created and adopted credo, or code of ethics, to  guide our communication behaviors ● Based on the First Amendment, respect for others, access to information, democratic decision  making, and responsibility for our behavior  Becoming Ethical Producers of Information ● Add to the Body of Knowledge  ○ You want to choose a topic that you think will benefit your audience or add to the general body  of knowledge ○ Choose a topic that advocated truthfulness, accuracy, and honesty  ● Be credible and reliable  ○ Use sound evidence and reasoning so you don’t pass off information that could be misleading to  your audience  ○ Be sensitive to differences within your audience ○ Use language that is not abusive or offensive ○ Your responsibility to be fully prepared for your presentation  ● Avoid Plagiarism  ○ Want an honest presentation  ○ Plagiarism occurs when you present someone else's words or ideas as if they were your own ○ Can be intentional or unintentional  ○ Intentional plagiarism can occur on a global level (taking entire passages or speeches) or on a  partial level (using keywords and phrases within your own speech) ○ Piecing together several excerpts from various sources and saying it is your own is still  plagiarism  ○ Key to avoid partial plagiarism is to attribute the information to each source  ○ Offense that comes with serious consequences  ■ Fail the course or be expelled from the University ○ Unintentional plagiarism occurs because of carelessness ■ E.g., neglect to take careful notes or fail to cite source appropriately  ○ Can occur when you and a friend collaborate on a speech topic ○ Authorization and acknowledgement criteria; if both instructors are not informed of the  collaboration and both speech writers are not acknowledged in the process, the speeches are  plagiarized  ● Document Your Resources ○ Important reason for fully citing your sources orally is to establish the credibility and reliability  of your supporting material  ● Persuade Ethically ○ Goal of persuasive speaking is to influence others ○ Ethical criteria for persuasion ■ Do not use false, fabricated, misrepresented, distorted, or irrelevant evidence to support  arguments or claims ■ Do not intentionally use unsupported, misleaded, or illogical reasoning  ■ Do not represent yourself as informed or as an “expert” on a subject when you are not ■ Do not use irrelevant appeals to divert attention or scrutiny from the issue at hand ■ Do not ask your audience to link your idea or proposal to emotion laden values, motives, or goals to which it actually is not related ■ Do not deceive your audience by concealing your real proposal ■ Do not distort, hide, or misrepresent the number, scope, intensity, or undesirable features of  consequences or effects ■ Do not use “emotional appeals” that lack a supporting basis of evidence or reasoning ■ Do not oversimplify complex… situations into two­valued, either­or, polar views or choices  ■ Do not pretend certainty where tentativeness and degrees of probability would be more accurate ■ Do not advocate something in which you do not believe in yourself ● Becoming Ethical Consumers of Information ○ Listen to others as you would have them listen to you ○ Teaching ethical communication improves communication confidence  ○ What an ethical listener does: ■ Shows respect by paying attention to the speaker ■ Open to new ideas ■ Avoids prejudging the speaker ■ Provides nonverbal feedback to the speaker ■ Aware of his or her own biases  Ethical Norms ● Ethical norms: rules of behavior ● Classroom code of conduct; (E.g., speakers and listeners will be on time to class, speakers will  be fully prepare to present, etc) ● If everyone agrees to and follows these norms, the climate of the classroom will become more  positive and less threatening ● Promote not only better ethical communicators, but more confident communicators 


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