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Interrogation and Confession and Bill of Rights Notes

by: Hanna Roberts

Interrogation and Confession and Bill of Rights Notes CJS 101

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Criminal Justice Sciences > CJS 101 > Interrogation and Confession and Bill of Rights Notes
Hanna Roberts

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Interrogation and Confession and Bill of Rights class notes
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Class Notes
interrogation, confession, bill, Of, rights, class, notes, Criminal, Justice
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Roberts on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJS 101 at Illinois State University taught by Savage in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice Sciences at Illinois State University.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
1st Amendment 1. Religion 2. Free speech 3. Freedom of press 4. Assembly ● Freedom of the Press ● Hit man: a technical manual for independent contractors, Paladin Press, 1983 Freedom of Speech: Unprotected Speech ● Defamation of Character ○ Slander ○ Libel ● Threats ● Incitement to Lawless Action ● Certain Commercial Speech ● Anonymous speech ● Pornography ○ Obscenity ○ Child Pornography Recent Expansion of Political Speech Rights ● Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission Supreme Court ruling, January 2010 ● “Government may not suppress political speech on the basis of the speaker's identity” ­Justice Kennedy ● McCain­Feingold campaign finance reform ● v. Federal Election Commission ○ Gave rise to Super PACS Second Amendment ● A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to  keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed  Second Amendment History ● Before 1930s ● 1930s ● 2008 ○ Supreme Court case ○ Washington D.C. handgun ban ○ Ruling: ■ The second amendment codifies “a pre­existing right” ■ Protects an individual right to possess a firearm ■ The right is not unlimited  Fourth Amendment ● The right of the people to be secure on their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against  unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon  probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be  searched, and the person or things to be seized.” ● Protection against Search and Seizure ● Warrants ● Probable Cause ● The warrant must describe a specific person and place Fifth Amendment ● No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a  presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or  in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be  subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in  any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,  without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just  compensation. 1. Grand Jury 2. Double Jeopardy 3. Self­incrimination a. Basis of later Miranda ruling 4. Right to due process of law 5. Seizure of private property without just compensation  Sixth Amendment ● In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an  impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which  district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process  for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. ● Due Process Rights ○ Right to trial ■ Speedy Trial ■ Public Trial ■ Jury Trial ○ Right to be informed of charges ○ Right to call and confront witnesses ○ Right to legal assistance (counsel)  Eighth Amendment ● Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual  punishments inflicted 1. Forbids imposition of excessive bail a. Implies a right to bail­ but there is not absolute right to bail b. “Excessive” open to interpretation 2. Forbids “cruel and unusual punishment” a. Also open to interpretation b. Evolving standards of decency  The Right to Privacy ● Not enumerated in the Constitution ● Not enumerated in the Bill of Rights ● Gradually granted by Supreme Court based on interpretation of the Constitution  ● Selling contraceptives to married couples ● Possession of pornography in the home ● Abortion 14th Amendment ● Liberty Clause “No State shall… Deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law” Interrogations and Confessions History ● Europe, Middle Ages ○ Confessions ● USA 1800s­1900s ○ The Third Degree; using torture to obtain confessions  ● 1940s ○ Psychological Methods of Interrogation  Police and Evidence Act, 1986 PACE ● England ● The PEACE Model ○ Planning and Preparation ○ Engage and Explain ○ Account ○ Closure ○ Evaluation  Research on Police Interrogation: Clearly & Warner, 2015 ● Building Rapport ● Observing body language ● Offering things of comfort ● Presenting real evidence ● Moving physically closer to suspect ● Minimizing seriousness of offense ● Emphasizing seriousness of offense ● Using deceit ● Leaving suspect alone in room ● Suggesting what might have happened ● Presenting false evidence ● Discouraging denials ● Blaming the victim Police Interrogation Training: The Reid Technique ● Behavior Analysis Interview (BAI) Causes of Wrongful Convictions ● Mistaken eyewitness identification  ● Suggestive identification procedures ● Perjury by “jailhouse snitches” ● Crime lab errors ● Weak police investigation ● Ignoring Exculpatory Evidence ● Prosecutors withholding evidence from defense ● Ineffective assistance by overworked defense attorneys ● Pressure on innocent defendants to plead guilty ● Judges’ ruling on evidence motions (pro prosection) ● Honest mistakes ● Official misconduct  Wrongful Convictions: The Role of Police Interrogations and False Confessions Why do innocent people confess? What do police do that may elicit false confessions? ● Deceit ● Trivializing Miranda  Interrogation Police: Competing Goals ● Convict the right person ● Protect the rights of the defendant ● Protect public safety  Miranda v. Arizona, 1966 ● Right to remain silent Juveniles ● Speaking is seen as a “waiver” of this right In re Gault, 1967 ● You may request a lawyer JDB v. North Carolina, 2011


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