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Biopsych Weeks 2 and 3 notes (due to Labor Day)

by: Jennifer Wagner

Biopsych Weeks 2 and 3 notes (due to Labor Day) 41363

Marketplace > Kent State University > Psychology > 41363 > Biopsych Weeks 2 and 3 notes due to Labor Day
Jennifer Wagner

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About this Document

Nervous system, brain structure and function, methods all going to be on the exam 9/21
Dr. Douglas L. Delahanty
Class Notes
nervous, system, brain, methods
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Wagner on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 41363 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Douglas L. Delahanty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychology at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
7 September 2016  Physiological Psychology 41363  Outline 2  I. Review of last time  II. Structure and function of the nervous system  Nervous System  1. CNS –most protected area of body. Protected by: bone. Surrounded by various membranes  and tissues and float it to protect it. Brain and spinal cord encased in bone.  A. 3 protective membranes (meninges)  1. Dura mater—the outermost of the meninges. Tough and inflexible.  2. Arachnoid membrane—middle layer of the meninges, located between the outer dura mater  and the inner pia mater   3. Pia mater—the layer of meninges adjacent to the surface of the brain. Very thin. Covers  every grove of the brain. Like plastic wrap  B. CSF—Cerebrospinal fluid takes pressure off brain and helps it cushion and float it to protect  brain stem. Decrease pressure on the brainstem. Has a half­life of 3 hours. When blocked, more  and more CSF is being made and the ventricles get larger and push against brain 1. Ventricles – lateral: largest. They connect to the 3  ventricle. 3  ventricle connects to the 4   th ventricle.   2. Produced by choroid plexus—the highly vascular tissue that protrudes into the ventricles and  produces cerebrospinal fluid  2. PNS ­ relay info to and from external receptors and CNS  3. Somatic NS ­ conscious movements  4. Autonomic NS ­ “self­governing” regulation of internal environment  5. Parasympathetic ­ saves energy. Wants to conserve energy   6. Sympathetic ­ uses energy. Breaking things down to create energy. Brain  A.orientation  lateral – to the outside  medial­ to the middle rostral­ toward the nose, front of the brain caudal­ toward the tail, back of the brain  dorsal­ top of the brain ventral­ bottom of the brain  B. forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube  C. gray vs white matter—white matter is primarily myelinated axons D. convolutions—increases surface area of brain.  1. fissures—are the deepest cuts  2. sulci (sulcus)—smaller grooves not as deep as fissures  3. gyri (gyrus)—each bulge   E. 2 hemispheres—separated by longitudinal fissure. Brains develop from the brain stem up.  Frontal lobe and cortex distinguishes us from other animals.  I. Forebrain  A. Cerebral cortex ­ thinking and mental processes: planning. Outermost layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres that is about 3mm thick. Made up of supporting cells, dendrites, and  cell bodies.  Lateralization: different sides do different things  ­ left hemisphere deals with analysis of serial/sequential processes. Language­oriented; serial  (builds) material  ­ right hemisphere is predominantly synthesis­oriented: perception of wholes. Visuospatial;  perceptions of wholes  ­contralateral vs ipsilateral  Contralateral located on opposite side of the body, while ipsilateral is the same side of the body  ­corpus callosum: split brain patients. Surgical remedy for seizures is to disconnect the two sides  of the brain. Cut all the connection between the two. If flash word “pen” on left side, it goes into  the right side of the brain, and they cannot verbalize that they saw the word “pen”  ­neural tube bended and gives shape to how we grow billions of cells to form brain. Extends and  forms the brain. Make twice as many neurons as we would ever need, half die, other half  becomes wired and used correctly.  1. Lobes—each does something different. bones protect the lobes ­frontal lobe ­ primary motor cortex. Make plans. Higher­thinking, reasoning, decision making. Primary motor cortex is laid out like the body; for the things that require movement.   ­parietal ­ primary somatosensory cortex.  Senses. Touch, temperature, pain.  Lateral fissure separates frontal and parietal from temporal ­temporal ­ primary auditory cortex.  ­occipital ­ primary visual cortex.   ­association cortex ­ integrates info from primary cortices  Each cortex has association cortices  2. Broca’s area—only in the left hemisphere. Difficulty with speech production when disrupted,  harmed. People with Broca’s aphasia has trouble producing speech. They know what they want  to say but cannot verbalize it. 3. Wernicke’s area—left temporal lobe. Difficulty comprehending speech and producing speech  that makes sense. What is being said doesn’t make sense. Don’t appear to note that they have a  deficit.  B. Limbic system ­ emotion, motivation and learning/memory  1. Amygdala ­ anger, aggression, reproduction. Negative emotion center (primarily). Rage  center.  2. Hippocampus ­ learning and memory formation.  3. Septum ­ anger, fear  C. Basal ganglia ­ control of movement. Parkinson’s is due to destruction of the neurons  synapsing on the basal ganglia  D. Thalamus – conductor. Almost all incoming information hits the thalamus and be directed  where to go. The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the primary visual pathway and the mediate  geniculate nucleus is part of the auditory pathway.  E. Hypothalamus – survival. Involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Important  for fighting, feeding, fleeing, and mating. Controls the pituitary gland (master endocrine gland).   II. Midbrain—two sections: tectum “roof” which is the superior (visual) and inferior colliculi  (audition). And the second is the tegmentum (gray matter, reticular formation, substantia nigra) A. Reticular formation ­ regulation of consciousness. Large network of tissue: sleep, arousal,  attention, movement, and vital reflexes  B. Superior and inferior colliculi ­ vision and hearing  C. Substantia nigra – movement. Synapses on the basal ganglia.   III. Hindbrain  A. Cerebellum ­ coordinates and smooths movements. If injured, impact balance, movement and  ability to move effectively  B. Pons ­ relay station. Sleep and arousal. Pathway for cerebellum to relay info to rest of brain   C. Medulla (oblongata) ­ heart rate, breathing, digestion, crossover. Vital functions. Spinal cord ­ routes sensory and motor info to and from the brain  I. Dorsal horn ­ sensory  II. Ventral horn ­ motor  III. Simple reflex  Research Methodology  I. Experimental ablation ­ lesion studies. Destroy part of the brain in a lab animal, see what  happened. Hard to tell what each part actually controls. Subcortical lesions—Radio Frequency  Current: take a wire and insert into part of brain and turn on a radio frequency current that  destroys what the wire touches and whatever is close to it.   A. Producing brain lesions  ­ surface lesions  ­ subcortical regions  ­ excitotoxic lesions ­ uses kainic acid to produce an intracerebral injection of an excitatory  amino acid. Kill cells that are on the dendrites  ­ 6­hyroxydopamine  ­ sham lesions—a placebo procedure that duplicates all the steps of producing a brain lesion  except for the one that actually causes brain damage (no kainic acid or radio frequency). Can  insure it was the lesion not the surgery that cause the resulting behavior.  ­reversible lesions  B. Stereotaxic surgery—will have a stereotaxic apparatus to perform brain surgeries. Starting  point is always bregma (crosshairs). Follow directions in rat atlas on where you need to go  C. Determining pathways of communication  1. Anterograde labeling ­ PHA­L—inject and is picked up by dendrites and cell bodies.  immunocytochemical technology. “Going forward”  2. Retrograde labeling (to go backwards) – fluorogold—a dye that gets picked up by terminal  buttons and goes backwards and see where the axons are synapsing on the VMH and how they  communicate with each other to result in certain behavior D. How do we find out about the brain?  1. Electroencephalogram (EEG)—an electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on  the scalp. Gives average electrical activity happening in the brain 2. X­rays or angiograms—tell if injuries to the skull or brain, look at blood flow in brain or  blockages—aneurisms, embolisms  3. Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan—allows you to look at the brain. Same plane  each time, tells you what’s going on. Static picture, cannot tell activity. Can identify issues like  an x­ray  4. Magnetic resonance imaging ­ (MRI)—clearer pictures, use magnets and radio waves to see  brain. Not activity but very clear detail.   5. Positron emission tomography (PET)—allow you to look at a brain while it’s processing  information. Inject radioactive tracer. Use radioactive glucose that goes to areas that are being  used. Red is high activity. Not as clear, but shows actual brain activity. Very expensive.   6. Functional MRI—gives you the clear picture of an MRI but adds on the measure of activity  like seen in the PET scan. Looks at cerebral move of oxygen.  


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