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SCI 1101 CH3 Outline

by: nako.nako.nako

SCI 1101 CH3 Outline SCI 1101

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Completed CH 2 Outline - Original blank spaces that were in Prof. Abikoye's ppt are now filled in & written with LIGHT RED fonts. - Red font = materials that Prof. Abikoye emphasized and likely to ...
Science, Society & Environ I
Professor Kay Abikoye
Class Notes
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Lecture  Outlines Chapter  3 Evolution,  Biodiversity,  and   Population  Ecology Withgott/Laposata Fifth  Edition This  lecture  will  help  you  understand: § Natural  selection § How  evolution  influences  biodiversity § Reasons  for  species  extinction § Ecological  organization § Population  characteristics § Population  ecology § Conserving  biodiversity   ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Central  Case  Study:  Saving  Hawaii’s  Native   Forest  Birds § Evolution  in  the  Hawaiian  Islands  has  generated   hundreds  of  species,  many  unique  to  the  islands § The  island  chain  was  once  home  to  140  species  of   native  birds § In  recent  times,  half  of  the  native  bird  species  have   gone  extinct § Introduced  species  (like  pigs,  cattle,  rats,  and  cats)   destroyed  habitat  and  killed  eggs  and  young § Avian  malaria  killed  native  birds  at  lower  elevations ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Evolution:  The  Source  of  Earth’s  Biodiversity § Species = a  population  or  group  of  populations   whose  members  share  characteristics § They  can  breed  with  one  another  and  produce  fertile   offspring § Population = a  group  of  individuals  of  a  species   that  live  in  the  same  area § Evolution = change  over  time § Biological  evolution = change  in  populations  of   organism  over  generations § Genetic  changes  lead  to  changes  in  appearance,   functioning,  or  behavior Evolution:  The  Source  of  Earth’s  Biodiversity § Genetic  changes  in  evolution  may  be  random   § But  may  be  directed  by  natural  selection § Natural  selection = process  in  which  traits  that   enhance  survival  and  reproduction  are  passed  on   more  frequently  to  future  generations  than  those  that   do  not § Genetic  makeup  of  future  populations  is  changed ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Evolution:  The  Source  of  Earth’s  Biodiversity § Evolution  is  one  of  the  best-­supported  and  most   illuminating  concepts  in  all  science § It  is  the  foundation  of  modern  biology § We  must  understand  it  to  appreciate  environmental   science § Understanding  how  species  change  over  time  and   adapt  to  their  surroundings  is  crucial  for   comprehending  ecology  and  the  history  of  life § Evolutionary  processes  influence  pesticide  resistance,   agriculture,  medicine,  health,  etc. Natural  selection  shapes  organisms  and   diversity § In  1858,  both  Darwin  and  Wallace  proposed  natural   selection  as  the  mechanism  of  evolution § Premises  of  natural  selection: § Organisms  struggle  to  survive  and  reproduce § Organisms  produce  more  offspring  than  can  survive § Individuals  of  a  species  vary  in  their  characteristics   due  to  genes  and  the  environment § Some  individuals  are  better  suited  to  their   environment  and  reproduce  more  effectively § Organisms  with  better  adapted  traits  will  produce   more  offspring Natural  selection  shapes  organisms  and   diversity § Adaptation = the  process  where,  over  time,   characteristics  (traits)  that  lead  to  better  reproductive   success  become  more  prevalent  in  the  population § Adaptive  trait  (adaptation) = a  trait  that  promotes   reproductive  success § Mutations = accidental  changes  in  DNA  that  may  be   passed  on  to  the  next  generation § Non-­lethal  mutations  provide  the  genetic  variation  on   which  natural  selection  acts § Sexual  reproduction  also  leads  to  variation § Directional  selection = drives  a  feature  in  one  direction ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Selective  pressures  from  the  environment   influence  adaptation § Divergent  evolution:  Related  species  in  different   environments  experience  different  pressures  and   evolve  different  traits § Convergent  evolution: Unrelated  species  may   acquire  similar  traits  because  they  live  in  similar   environments ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Evidence  of  natural  selection  is  all  around  us § It  is  evident  in  every  adaptation  of  every  organism § Artificial  selection = the  process  of  selection   conducted  under  human  direction § Produced  the  great  variety  of  dog  breed  and  food   crops ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Evolution  generates  biodiversity § Biological  diversity  (biodiversity) = the  variety  of   life  across  all  levels  of  biological  organization § Genes § Species § Populations § Communities § Scientists  have  described  1.8  million  species § Estimates  of  the  total  number  of  species  that  exist   range  from  3  million  to  100  million § Biodiversity  exists  nearly  everywhere Speciation  produces  new  types  of  organisms § The  process  of  generating  new  species  from  a   single  species § Allopatric  speciation = species  formation  due  to   physical  separation  of  populations § The  main  mode  of  speciation § Populations  can  be  separated  by  glaciers,  rivers,   mountains § Each  population  gets  its  own  set  of  mutations   § Natural  selection  can  speed  the  process Know this pic. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. We  can  infer  the  history  of  life’s  diversification   by  comparing  organisms § How  did  the  major  groups  of  organisms  come  to  be? § Phylogenetic  trees = diagrams  that  show   relationships  among  species,  groups,  genes,  etc. § Scientists  can  trace  how  certain  traits  evolved § Some  traits  evolved  and  were  passed  on § Other  traits  evolved  more  than  once  (e.g.,  the  ability   to  fly) Will be show up in the test know what kind of trait is associated to which. We  can  infer  the  history  of  life’s  diversification   by  comparing  organisms § Knowing  how  organisms  are  related  to  one  another   helps  scientists  organize  and  name  them § Categories  reflect  evolutionary  relationships § Scientists  use  physical  and  genetic  characteristics  to   organize   § Each  species  gets  a  two-­part  Latinized  scientific   name Know the order. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. The  fossil  record  teaches  us  about  life’s  long   history § Fossil = an  imprint  in  stone  of  a  dead  organism § Fossil  record = the  cumulative  body  of  fossils   worldwide § The  fossil  record  shows: § Life  has  existed  on  Earth  for  at  least  3.5  billion  years § Earlier  types  of  organisms  evolved  into  later  ones § The  number  of  species  has  increased  over  time § Most  species  have  gone  extinct § There  have  been  several  mass  extinctions  in  the  past Speciation  and  extinction  together  determine   Earth’s  biodiversity § Extinction = the  disappearance  of  a  species  from   Earth § Species  last  1-­10  million  years § Extinction  has  historically  been  a  natural  occurrence § The  loss  of  a  species  is  irreversible Number  of  species  in  existence  = speciation  - extinction ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Speciation  and  extinction  together  determine   Earth’s  biodiversity § Human  activity  profoundly  affects  rates of  extinction § Biodiversity  loss  affects  people  directly § Food,  fiver,  medicine,  ecosystem  services ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Some  species  are  especially  vulnerable  to   extinction § Extinction  can  occur  when  the  environment  changes   rapidly  and  natural  selection  can  not  keep  up § Many  factors  cause  extinction: § Severe  weather,  climate  change,  changing  sea  levels § Arrival  of  new  species § Being  a  small  population  or  specialized  species Some  species  are  especially  vulnerable  to   extinction § Endemic  species = a  species  that  only  exists  in  a   certain,  specialized  area § Very  susceptible  to  extinction § Usually  have  small  populations § Island  species  are  often  endemic  and  thus  at  risk Some  species  are  especially  vulnerable  to   extinction § Many  U.S.  amphibians  have  very  small  ranges § They  are  vulnerable  to  extinction § For  example,  the  Yosemite  toad,  Houston  toad,   Florida  bog  frog § Forty  salamander  species  are  restricted  to  areas  the   size  of  a  typical  county Some  U.S.  salamander  species  live  on  top of  single  mountains ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Earth  has  seen  several  episodes  of  mass   extinctions § Background  extinction  rate = a  constant,  slow  rate  of   extinction  that  occurs  as  a  part  of  evolution § Mass  extinction  events = episodes  that  killed  off   massive  numbers  of  species  at  once § Occurred  5  times  in  Earth’s  history § 50–95%  of  all  species  go  extinct  at  one  time § Cretaceous–T ertiary  (K–T)  event:  65  million  years   ago § Dinosaurs  went  extinct § End-­Permian  event:  250  million  years  ago § 75–95%  of  all  species  went  extinct The  sixth  mass  extinction  is  upon  us § Humans  are  causing  the  sixth  mass  extinction  event § Resource  depletion,  population  growth,  development § Destruction  of  natural  habitats § Hunting  and  harvesting  of  species § Introduction  of  non-­native  species § Today’s  extinction  rate  is  100–1000  times  higher   than  the  background  rate  and  rising § It  will  take  millions  of  years  for  life  to  recover The  Geologic  Record Right-­click/Select  Play ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Macroevolution Right-­click/Select  Play ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. We  study  ecology  at  several  levels § Ecology  and  evolution  are  tightly  intertwined § Biosphere = the  total  of  living  things  on  Earth  and   the  areas  they  inhabit § Community = interacting  species  that  live  in  the   same  area § Ecosystem = communities  and  the  nonliving   material  and  forces  they  interact  with   ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. We  study  ecology  at  several  levels § Population  ecology = investigates  the  dynamics  of   population  change § The  factors  affecting  the  distribution  and  abundance   of  members  of  a  population § Why  some  populations  increase  and  others  decrease § Community  ecology = focuses  on  patterns  of   species  diversity  and  interactions § Ecosystem  ecology = studies  living  and  nonliving   components  of  systems  to  reveal  patterns. § Nutrient  and  energy  flows Each  organism  has  habitat  needs § Habitat = the  environment  where  an  organism  lives   § It  includes  living  and  nonliving  elements § Habitat  use = each  organism  thrives  in  certain   habitats,  but  not  in  others § Results  in  nonrandom  patterns  of  use § Habitat  selection = the  process  by  which  organisms   actively  select  habitats  in  which  to  live § Availability  and  quality  of  habitat  are  crucial  to  an   organism’s  well-­being § Human  developments  conflict  with  this  process Each  organism  has  habitat  needs § Habitats  vary  with  the  body  size  and  needs  of  species § A  soil  mite  vs.  an  elephant § Species  have  different  habitat  needs  at  different   times § Migratory  birds  use  different  habitats  during  migration,   summer,  and  winter § Species  use  different  criteria  to  select  habitat § Soil,  topography,  vegetation,  other  species § Water  temperature,  salinity,  prey § Species  survival  depends  on  having  suitable  habitat Niche  and  specialization  are  key  concepts  in   ecology § Niche = summary  of  everything  an  organism  does § Use  of  resources § Functional  role  in  a  community:    habitat  use,  food   selection,  role  in  energy  and  nutrient  flow,  interactions   with  other  individuals Niche  and  specialization  are  key  concepts  in   ecology § Specialists = species  that  have  narrow  niches  and   specific  needs § Extremely  good  at  what  they  do § But  vulnerable  when  conditions  change § Generalists = species  with  broad  niches § Use  a  wide  array  of  habitats  and  resources § Can  live  in  many  different  places   Population  Ecology § Population = individuals  of  a  particular  species  that   inhabit  an  area § Species  may  have  different  arrangements  of  their   populations § Some  populations  (like  the  nene)  exists  as  isolated   populations § Others  (like  humans)  exist  as   large  continuous  populations Populations  show  characteristics  that  help   predict  their  dynamics § Certain  characteristics  of  a  population  help  scientists   predict  what  will  happen  to  them  in  the  future § Helps  in  managing  threatened  species § Population  size = number  of  individuals  present  at   a  given  time § Populations  generally  grow  when  resources  are   abundant  and  predators  are  few § Decline  in  response  to  loss  of  resources,  other   species,  disasters ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Population  density § Population  density = the  number  of  individuals  in  a   population  per  unit  area § High  densities  have  advantages  and  disadvantages § Easier  to  find  mates § Increased  competition  and  vulnerability  to  predation § Increased  transmission  of  diseases § Sometimes  causes  organisms  to  leave  an  area  if  too   dense § Low  densities  provide  access  to  plentiful  resources   and  space  but  make  it  harder  to  find  mates Population  distribution § Population  distribution  (dispersion) = spatial   arrangement  of  organisms § Random = haphazardly  located  individuals,  with  no   pattern § Uniform = individuals  are  evenly  spaced   § Territoriality,  competition § Clumped = organisms  found  close  to  other   members  of  population § Most  common  in  nature § Clustering  around  resources § Mutual  defense ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Sex  ratio  and  age  structure § Sex  ratio = proportion  of  males  to  females § In  monogamous  species,  a  1:1  sex  ratio  maximizes   population  growth § Most  species  are  not  monogamous,  so  ratios  vary § Age  distribution  (structure) = the  relative  numbers   of  organisms  of  each  age  in  a  population § Age  structure  diagrams  (pyramids)  show  the  age   structure  of  populations § In  species  that  continue  growing  as  they  age,  older   individuals  reproduce  more  (e.g.,  a  tree) § Experience  can  help  older  individuals  breed  more Birth  and  death  rates § Survivorship  curves = graphs  that  show  that  the   likelihood  of  death  varies  with  age   § Type  I:    higher  death  rate  at  older  ages § Larger  animals  (e.g humans) § Type  II:    same  death  rate  at  all  ages § Medium-­sized  animals  (e.g.,  birds) § Type  III:    higher  death  rate  at  younger  ages § Small  animals,  plants ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Populations  may  grow,  shrink,  or  remain  stable § Natality = births  within  the  population   § Mortality = deaths  within  the  population § Immigration = arrival  of  individuals  from  outside  the   population   § Emigration = departure  of  individuals  from  the   population § Births  and  immigration  add  individuals;;  deaths  and   emigration  remove  individuals § Crude  birth  (death)  rates = number  of  births  (deaths)   per  1000  individuals  per  year Populations  may  grow,  shrink,  or  remain  stable § Natural  rate  of  population  increase = (Crude  birth  rate)  - (crude  death  rate) § Population  change  due  to  internal  factors § Population  growth  rate = (Crude  birth  rate  + immigration  rate)  - (Crude  death  rate   + emigration  rate) § Net  changes  in  a  population’s  size/1000/year § Growth  rate  as  a  percent  = Population  growth   rate  ´ 100% § Populations  of  different  sizes  can  be  compared Unregulated  populations  increase  by   exponential  growth § Exponential  growth  = when a  population  increases   by  a  fixed  percent § Graphed  as  a  J-­shaped  curve § Exponential  growth  cannot  be  sustained  indefinitely § It  occurs  in  nature  with: § Small  population § Low  competition § Ideal  conditions § Occurs  often  with  introduced  species ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Limiting  factors  restrain  population  growth § Limiting  factors = physical,  chemical,  and   biological  attributes  of  the  environment  that  restrain   population  growth § Space,  food,  water,  mates,  shelter,  suitable  breeding   sties,  temperature,  disease,  predators § Carrying  capacity = the  maximum  population  size   of  a  species  that  its  environment  can  sustain § Limiting  factors  slow  and  stop  exponential  growth § An  S-­shaped  logistic growth  curve ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Carrying  capacities  can  change § Environments  are  complex  and  ever-­changing § Limiting  factors  can  change,  altering  the  carrying   capacity § Humans  lower  environmental  resistance  for   themselves § Increases  our  carrying  capacity § Technologies  overcome  limiting  factors § In  increasing  carrying  capacity  for  humans,  we  now   use  immense  portions  of  the  planet’s  resources § We  have  reduced  the  carrying  capacity  for  countless   other  organisms Reproductive  strategies  vary  among  species § Biotic  potential = an  organism’s  capacity  to  produce   offspring § K-­selected  species = species  with  long  gestation   periods,  few  offspring,  and  strong  parental  care § have  a  low biotic  potential § stabilize  at  or  near  carrying  capacity;;  good  competitors § r-­selected  species = species  that  reproduce  quickly   and  offer  little  or  no  care  for  offspring § have  a  high biotic  potential § Populations  fluctuate  greatly   These  are  the  two  extremes—most  species  fall   somewhere  in  between Conserving  Biodiversity § Humans  are  developing  land,  extracting  resources,   and  growing  as  a  population § This  increases  the  rate  of  environmental  change  for   other  species § Science  can  help  us  understand  how  we  are   changing  the  environment § Impacts  threatening  biodiversity  have  complex   social,  economic,  and  political  roots § We  must  understand  these  factors  to  solve  problems Introduced  species  pose  challenges  for  native   populations  and  communities § Some  introduced  species  thrive  in  their  new   environments,  eliminating  native  species § Native  island  species  are  particularly  vulnerable § Evolved  in  isolation  with  limited  need  for  defenses § Biologists  and  land  managers  often  must  eradicate   introduced  species  to  protect  native  habitats § In  Hawaii,  pigs  are  being  hunted  and  pig-­free  areas   are  being  fenced  off Innovative  solutions  are  working § Scientists,  land  managers,  and  private  citizens  are   protecting  the  native  species  and  habitats  of  Hawaii § Invasive  species  are  being  removed § Native  species  (like  the  nēnē)  are  being  protected,   and  new  populations  are  being  started § Ranch  land  is  being  restored  to  forest § Coral  reef  communities  are  part  of  the  largest   federally  protected  marine  reserve  in  the  world § This  restored  and  protected  land  has  resulted  in   ecotourism = the  phenomenon  of  people  visiting   the  islands  to  experience  the  natural  areas Climate  change  now  poses  an  extra  challenge § Climate  change  is  altering  how  we  protect  species   and  habitats   § Land  is  typically  protected  to  conserve  the  species   that  live  there § As  the  climate  changes,  the  protected  land  may  no   longer  support  the  same  species ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Conclusion § The  fundamentals  of  evolution  and  population   ecology  are  integral  to  environmental  science § Natural  selection,  speciation,  and  extinction  help   determine  Earth’s  biodiversity § Understanding  how  ecological  processes  function at  the  population  level  is  crucial  to  protecting   biodiversity


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