SCI 1101 CH3 Outline
SCI 1101 CH3 Outline SCI 1101
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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Lecture Outlines Chapter 3 Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology Withgott/Laposata Fifth Edition This lecture will help you understand: § Natural selection § How evolution influences biodiversity § Reasons for species extinction § Ecological organization § Population characteristics § Population ecology § Conserving biodiversity © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Case Study: Saving Hawaii’s Native Forest Birds § Evolution in the Hawaiian Islands has generated hundreds of species, many unique to the islands § The island chain was once home to 140 species of native birds § In recent times, half of the native bird species have gone extinct § Introduced species (like pigs, cattle, rats, and cats) destroyed habitat and killed eggs and young § Avian malaria killed native birds at lower elevations © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity § Species = a population or group of populations whose members share characteristics § They can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring § Population = a group of individuals of a species that live in the same area § Evolution = change over time § Biological evolution = change in populations of organism over generations § Genetic changes lead to changes in appearance, functioning, or behavior Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity § Genetic changes in evolution may be random § But may be directed by natural selection § Natural selection = process in which traits that enhance survival and reproduction are passed on more frequently to future generations than those that do not § Genetic makeup of future populations is changed © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity § Evolution is one of the best-supported and most illuminating concepts in all science § It is the foundation of modern biology § We must understand it to appreciate environmental science § Understanding how species change over time and adapt to their surroundings is crucial for comprehending ecology and the history of life § Evolutionary processes influence pesticide resistance, agriculture, medicine, health, etc. Natural selection shapes organisms and diversity § In 1858, both Darwin and Wallace proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution § Premises of natural selection: § Organisms struggle to survive and reproduce § Organisms produce more offspring than can survive § Individuals of a species vary in their characteristics due to genes and the environment § Some individuals are better suited to their environment and reproduce more effectively § Organisms with better adapted traits will produce more offspring Natural selection shapes organisms and diversity § Adaptation = the process where, over time, characteristics (traits) that lead to better reproductive success become more prevalent in the population § Adaptive trait (adaptation) = a trait that promotes reproductive success § Mutations = accidental changes in DNA that may be passed on to the next generation § Non-lethal mutations provide the genetic variation on which natural selection acts § Sexual reproduction also leads to variation § Directional selection = drives a feature in one direction © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Selective pressures from the environment influence adaptation § Divergent evolution: Related species in different environments experience different pressures and evolve different traits § Convergent evolution: Unrelated species may acquire similar traits because they live in similar environments © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evidence of natural selection is all around us § It is evident in every adaptation of every organism § Artificial selection = the process of selection conducted under human direction § Produced the great variety of dog breed and food crops © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolution generates biodiversity § Biological diversity (biodiversity) = the variety of life across all levels of biological organization § Genes § Species § Populations § Communities § Scientists have described 1.8 million species § Estimates of the total number of species that exist range from 3 million to 100 million § Biodiversity exists nearly everywhere Speciation produces new types of organisms § The process of generating new species from a single species § Allopatric speciation = species formation due to physical separation of populations § The main mode of speciation § Populations can be separated by glaciers, rivers, mountains § Each population gets its own set of mutations § Natural selection can speed the process Know this pic. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We can infer the history of life’s diversification by comparing organisms § How did the major groups of organisms come to be? § Phylogenetic trees = diagrams that show relationships among species, groups, genes, etc. § Scientists can trace how certain traits evolved § Some traits evolved and were passed on § Other traits evolved more than once (e.g., the ability to fly) Will be show up in the test know what kind of trait is associated to which. We can infer the history of life’s diversification by comparing organisms § Knowing how organisms are related to one another helps scientists organize and name them § Categories reflect evolutionary relationships § Scientists use physical and genetic characteristics to organize § Each species gets a two-part Latinized scientific name Know the order. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The fossil record teaches us about life’s long history § Fossil = an imprint in stone of a dead organism § Fossil record = the cumulative body of fossils worldwide § The fossil record shows: § Life has existed on Earth for at least 3.5 billion years § Earlier types of organisms evolved into later ones § The number of species has increased over time § Most species have gone extinct § There have been several mass extinctions in the past Speciation and extinction together determine Earth’s biodiversity § Extinction = the disappearance of a species from Earth § Species last 1-10 million years § Extinction has historically been a natural occurrence § The loss of a species is irreversible Number of species in existence = speciation - extinction © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Speciation and extinction together determine Earth’s biodiversity § Human activity profoundly affects rates of extinction § Biodiversity loss affects people directly § Food, fiver, medicine, ecosystem services © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Some species are especially vulnerable to extinction § Extinction can occur when the environment changes rapidly and natural selection can not keep up § Many factors cause extinction: § Severe weather, climate change, changing sea levels § Arrival of new species § Being a small population or specialized species Some species are especially vulnerable to extinction § Endemic species = a species that only exists in a certain, specialized area § Very susceptible to extinction § Usually have small populations § Island species are often endemic and thus at risk Some species are especially vulnerable to extinction § Many U.S. amphibians have very small ranges § They are vulnerable to extinction § For example, the Yosemite toad, Houston toad, Florida bog frog § Forty salamander species are restricted to areas the size of a typical county Some U.S. salamander species live on top of single mountains © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth has seen several episodes of mass extinctions § Background extinction rate = a constant, slow rate of extinction that occurs as a part of evolution § Mass extinction events = episodes that killed off massive numbers of species at once § Occurred 5 times in Earth’s history § 50–95% of all species go extinct at one time § Cretaceous–T ertiary (K–T) event: 65 million years ago § Dinosaurs went extinct § End-Permian event: 250 million years ago § 75–95% of all species went extinct The sixth mass extinction is upon us § Humans are causing the sixth mass extinction event § Resource depletion, population growth, development § Destruction of natural habitats § Hunting and harvesting of species § Introduction of non-native species § Today’s extinction rate is 100–1000 times higher than the background rate and rising § It will take millions of years for life to recover The Geologic Record Right-click/Select Play © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Macroevolution Right-click/Select Play © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We study ecology at several levels § Ecology and evolution are tightly intertwined § Biosphere = the total of living things on Earth and the areas they inhabit § Community = interacting species that live in the same area § Ecosystem = communities and the nonliving material and forces they interact with © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We study ecology at several levels § Population ecology = investigates the dynamics of population change § The factors affecting the distribution and abundance of members of a population § Why some populations increase and others decrease § Community ecology = focuses on patterns of species diversity and interactions § Ecosystem ecology = studies living and nonliving components of systems to reveal patterns. § Nutrient and energy flows Each organism has habitat needs § Habitat = the environment where an organism lives § It includes living and nonliving elements § Habitat use = each organism thrives in certain habitats, but not in others § Results in nonrandom patterns of use § Habitat selection = the process by which organisms actively select habitats in which to live § Availability and quality of habitat are crucial to an organism’s well-being § Human developments conflict with this process Each organism has habitat needs § Habitats vary with the body size and needs of species § A soil mite vs. an elephant § Species have different habitat needs at different times § Migratory birds use different habitats during migration, summer, and winter § Species use different criteria to select habitat § Soil, topography, vegetation, other species § Water temperature, salinity, prey § Species survival depends on having suitable habitat Niche and specialization are key concepts in ecology § Niche = summary of everything an organism does § Use of resources § Functional role in a community: habitat use, food selection, role in energy and nutrient flow, interactions with other individuals Niche and specialization are key concepts in ecology § Specialists = species that have narrow niches and specific needs § Extremely good at what they do § But vulnerable when conditions change § Generalists = species with broad niches § Use a wide array of habitats and resources § Can live in many different places Population Ecology § Population = individuals of a particular species that inhabit an area § Species may have different arrangements of their populations § Some populations (like the nene) exists as isolated populations § Others (like humans) exist as large continuous populations Populations show characteristics that help predict their dynamics § Certain characteristics of a population help scientists predict what will happen to them in the future § Helps in managing threatened species § Population size = number of individuals present at a given time § Populations generally grow when resources are abundant and predators are few § Decline in response to loss of resources, other species, disasters © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Population density § Population density = the number of individuals in a population per unit area § High densities have advantages and disadvantages § Easier to find mates § Increased competition and vulnerability to predation § Increased transmission of diseases § Sometimes causes organisms to leave an area if too dense § Low densities provide access to plentiful resources and space but make it harder to find mates Population distribution § Population distribution (dispersion) = spatial arrangement of organisms § Random = haphazardly located individuals, with no pattern § Uniform = individuals are evenly spaced § Territoriality, competition § Clumped = organisms found close to other members of population § Most common in nature § Clustering around resources § Mutual defense © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sex ratio and age structure § Sex ratio = proportion of males to females § In monogamous species, a 1:1 sex ratio maximizes population growth § Most species are not monogamous, so ratios vary § Age distribution (structure) = the relative numbers of organisms of each age in a population § Age structure diagrams (pyramids) show the age structure of populations § In species that continue growing as they age, older individuals reproduce more (e.g., a tree) § Experience can help older individuals breed more Birth and death rates § Survivorship curves = graphs that show that the likelihood of death varies with age § Type I: higher death rate at older ages § Larger animals (e.g humans) § Type II: same death rate at all ages § Medium-sized animals (e.g., birds) § Type III: higher death rate at younger ages § Small animals, plants © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Populations may grow, shrink, or remain stable § Natality = births within the population § Mortality = deaths within the population § Immigration = arrival of individuals from outside the population § Emigration = departure of individuals from the population § Births and immigration add individuals;; deaths and emigration remove individuals § Crude birth (death) rates = number of births (deaths) per 1000 individuals per year Populations may grow, shrink, or remain stable § Natural rate of population increase = (Crude birth rate) - (crude death rate) § Population change due to internal factors § Population growth rate = (Crude birth rate + immigration rate) - (Crude death rate + emigration rate) § Net changes in a population’s size/1000/year § Growth rate as a percent = Population growth rate ´ 100% § Populations of different sizes can be compared Unregulated populations increase by exponential growth § Exponential growth = when a population increases by a fixed percent § Graphed as a J-shaped curve § Exponential growth cannot be sustained indefinitely § It occurs in nature with: § Small population § Low competition § Ideal conditions § Occurs often with introduced species © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Limiting factors restrain population growth § Limiting factors = physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the environment that restrain population growth § Space, food, water, mates, shelter, suitable breeding sties, temperature, disease, predators § Carrying capacity = the maximum population size of a species that its environment can sustain § Limiting factors slow and stop exponential growth § An S-shaped logistic growth curve © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Carrying capacities can change § Environments are complex and ever-changing § Limiting factors can change, altering the carrying capacity § Humans lower environmental resistance for themselves § Increases our carrying capacity § Technologies overcome limiting factors § In increasing carrying capacity for humans, we now use immense portions of the planet’s resources § We have reduced the carrying capacity for countless other organisms Reproductive strategies vary among species § Biotic potential = an organism’s capacity to produce offspring § K-selected species = species with long gestation periods, few offspring, and strong parental care § have a low biotic potential § stabilize at or near carrying capacity;; good competitors § r-selected species = species that reproduce quickly and offer little or no care for offspring § have a high biotic potential § Populations fluctuate greatly These are the two extremes—most species fall somewhere in between Conserving Biodiversity § Humans are developing land, extracting resources, and growing as a population § This increases the rate of environmental change for other species § Science can help us understand how we are changing the environment § Impacts threatening biodiversity have complex social, economic, and political roots § We must understand these factors to solve problems Introduced species pose challenges for native populations and communities § Some introduced species thrive in their new environments, eliminating native species § Native island species are particularly vulnerable § Evolved in isolation with limited need for defenses § Biologists and land managers often must eradicate introduced species to protect native habitats § In Hawaii, pigs are being hunted and pig-free areas are being fenced off Innovative solutions are working § Scientists, land managers, and private citizens are protecting the native species and habitats of Hawaii § Invasive species are being removed § Native species (like the nēnē) are being protected, and new populations are being started § Ranch land is being restored to forest § Coral reef communities are part of the largest federally protected marine reserve in the world § This restored and protected land has resulted in ecotourism = the phenomenon of people visiting the islands to experience the natural areas Climate change now poses an extra challenge § Climate change is altering how we protect species and habitats § Land is typically protected to conserve the species that live there § As the climate changes, the protected land may no longer support the same species © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Conclusion § The fundamentals of evolution and population ecology are integral to environmental science § Natural selection, speciation, and extinction help determine Earth’s biodiversity § Understanding how ecological processes function at the population level is crucial to protecting biodiversity
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