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Social Psychology Week 4 Notes

by: Annah Shrader

Social Psychology Week 4 Notes PSY 3310

Annah Shrader
GPA 3.705

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About this Document

These notes are on the last half of chapter 12 in the textbook as well as the lecture on 9/15/16.
Social Psychology
David Frank Ross (P)
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3310 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by David Frank Ross (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Social Psychology Week Four 9/15/16 Chapter 12 Notes Part Two: Love  Different specialties in psychology lead to different views. Evolutionary Psychologists believe that women and men can be explained by reproductive success and survival. Other psychologists believe there is more to the story and that humans override evolution perspectives in wake of cultural influence.  The theory of triangular love covers three important parts of love: intimacy, passion and commitment. These three options can be varied into 8 different types of love. o Intimacy covers the feeling of being close to another person. o Passion is the intense craving to be around a person. It involved physical and sexual attraction. This is the butterflies in your stomach stage. Interesting studies have been conducted to find whether the intense state of passion can be connected to other intense states like fear. Researchers have found it’s more likely to fall in love in a frightening situation. o Commitment is the third part of the theory of love where it is maintained. It involves companionate love. This is a calm and stable love. It's usually developed through lifetime experiences together, as well as time to gain trust. There are shared values involved.  Relationships vary across cultures. Individualistic versus Collectivist.  Some research shows that arranged marriages offer more satisfaction, but the results aren't conclusive.  There are many models and theories attempting to explain how relationships are maintained. o Social exchange theory: when in a long term relationship, the benefits should out way the costs. If they don't, problems arise. o Equity Theory: relationships are most satisfying when both partners contribute equally in terms of benefits. o The investment model: if you put a lot into a relationship (time, energy), you are less likely to break it off than if you put little effort. John Gottman's Conflict: 1.) Criticism: attacking aspects of partner 2.) Stonewalling: refusal to communicate. 3.) Contempt: repulsion to partner. 4.) Defensiveness: protecting self foremost Negative attribution style: the partner does a positive thing, but the other partner believes it to be making up for something bad. If the guy brings the girl flowers, instead of the girl being happy she asks "what did you do this time?" It is essentially thinking the worst of the partner's intentions. Jealousy  Women are more likely to feel jealous of another woman's physical traits, and males are more likely to feel jealous over the perceived rank and social success of the other males.  Women feel more threatened by emotional "cheating" than sexual, while men feel more threatened by physical cheating in a relationship. Lecture Notes: Review with additions: There are two types of emotions  Basic Emotions: These are not learned. We are born with them. Researchers figured this out by videotaping infants in infant theatres and showing them different slides with different images on them. The infants gave off facial expressions in reaction. These facial expressions were mapped. Basic emotions require no cognition or thought to occur. Evolutionists believe their purpose is for infants to communicate. All humans across cultures show the same basic emotions. o Blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, and breathing all increase with all the emotions except for interest which produces the opposite physiological response.  Social Emotions: These are learned. They include shame, embarrassment, and pride. By the age of two, a child will gain a sense of self. This was tested by putting red shading on children’s faces to see if they would recognize it on their faces in a mirror. The children who touched their face in shame or embarrassment with their self-image being altered were the ones who had a sense of self already. This requires cognition unlike the basic emotions. Experiments brought up:  Henry Harlow: did research on infant monkeys with surrogate mothers. He found that the babies preferred comfort to food. This was a breakthrough in that infants need emotional connection just as much if not more than their physical needs being met  Harlow’s experiment was backed by Rene Spitz who studied orphans in Romania. He found that the children never developed an emotional connection to one caregiver because there were too many children. Even though their physical needs were met, the children were mentally traumatized at the lack of emotional connection. He discovered that children could feel the emotions of sadness and develop depression at an extremely young age.  College students were brought in for an experiment they thought had to do with getting an injection to improve vision. They were really injected with EPI which is a type of adrenaline. Half of the participants were told of the side effects of the injection and the other half were not. They were put in a room with either a happy person or an angry person. Those who experienced high blood pressure, heart rate increase, etc., without knowing why were much more likely to take on the attitude of the person in the room whether happy or angry than the ones who knew the side effects prior to the injection.  An attractive woman interviews men on either a high bride or a low bridge. The high bridge aroused fear in the men and they were much more likely to call the woman afterwards for a date than the men on the low bridge without an emotional response to the interview. There is no cognition in this because fear is a basic emotion.  Zajonc conducted an experiment where he showed English people 50 Chinese symbols and asked them to come back a week later to see the same 50 plus 50 new ones. He asked the participants with each symbols shown if they remembered it from last time, and if they liked it. He found that the ones shown last time were not remembered, but they were more likely to be liked by the participants. This is known as the mere exposure effect. People tend to like what they have been exposed to more. Definitions to know:  James Lang Theory: This was proven incorrect, but people believed that an emotion was felt, and the person would look within to find out why they were feeling that way. They would label the emotion based off of the heart rate and pressure increase they thought they felt.  2 factor Theory: For every emotion there are two things that are happening: o Physiological Response: such as the blood pressure and heart rate increase. o Cognition: The person is thinking what to label that emotion that they feel. In order to do this, people look at their environment to come up with a rational label.  Confederate: Someone who is in on the experiment and working for the researcher.  Cognitive Dissonance: Uneasiness with people who disagree with things you personally find important. It causes a human’s balance to fade. Video:  Science of Love the Aron Study


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