FSC 440- Drug Identification- Week 4
FSC 440- Drug Identification- Week 4 FSC 440
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 440 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Nesser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Drug Identification in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
FSC 440 Drug Identification September 12, 2016 Marijuana CSA Schedule I Active Substance: THC or delta9THC Street Names: pot, mary jane, kush Category: Variable stimulant, depressant, hallucinogen, similar effects to narcotics Street Prices: $520 depending on strength Over 420 active substances are found in the marijuana plant 60 of these compounds are known as cannabinoids all are contributors to psychoactive properties of marijuana Most active substance tetra hydra cannabinol (THC) All the active ingredients from the plant will give variant effects General Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance alcohol being the most frequently used licit substance 54.5% of marijuana users only use marijuana 18.3% of high school seniors have admitted to using marijuana in the last 30 days As the age of user increases, the frequency and amount of drug used decreases user will either stop using drugs or move up to another drug 19.6% of users will mix marijuana with other substances to have greater effects History The plant was grown for fibers which could be used as rope (in war time) seeds are used for food and seasoning In early China marijuana was used for anesthetic properties, increase of appetite, and used as a home remedy to treat ailments given to pregnant women during child birth for psychoactive effects Settlers brought seeds from Europe harvest plant year round grown for fibers (hemp) was the second most abundant crop under cotton 1937 Marijuana Tax Act caused by the increase in use of plant for recreational use and not for products with a purpose did not outlaw but imposed heavy taxes on cultivation and distribution of plant all legally sold marijuana products were taken from shelves In 1943 (WWII) not enough cotton to support the war so the US planted over 350,000 marijuana plants Plant Cannabis is the biological genus of the plant o Cannabis sativa most popular plant parent strain o Cannabis indica o Cannabis ruderalis The marijuana is the term for the plant and products only when distributed for psychoactive properties not hemp/ lotion Hemp has content of .3% or lower of THC The typical plant can reach 12 feet in height Marijuana Production Hemp, Sinsemilla, Jelly Hash, Hash Oil Commercial Grade street distributors use plants cultivated from field with male and female plants, not specially treated, lots of seeds, THC content is 46% o Hybrids that have increased THC content are crossbred with other plants Sinsemilla harvested from unfertilized female plant specialized growing technique no cross pollination of seeds to grow: o light shocking (grown in indoor environment and go without natural/ synthetic light for 23 hours) o Gibberellic Acid (seeds soaked in it to kill male seeds) o Highest known content is 33% THC of simsemilla by removing male plants, female plants continue to produce resin which allows for increase potency Hash extraction of resin, dried and pressed together mainly comes from middle east packaged into blocks, stamped with symbol of distributors can range in color (light tan greenblack) to be ingested, mixed with marijuana or tobacco leaves, it will be smoked with it, Hash adds to THC content o Various processes to get resin out hand rubbing, shaking, sieving, water extraction, tumbling Hash Oil generally more potent leaves soaked in container of solvent such as acetone the resin will deposit as oil with syruplike consistency there’s a 1563% THC content depending on type and age of plant Jelly Hash combination of hash oil and resin it has a soft consistency and is used similarly to chewing tobacco Potency generally increased in levels of THC is in hash resin and has oil the average bud on a marijuana plant is around 5% of the entire bud is THC potency varies by different parts of the plant larger female flower clusters would give a bigger high due to more available THC most of the leaves are discarded but the larger leaves are used for distributors and hash/ hash oil extractions Roots, seeds, stalk, twig carry little to no THC distributors may add to bag just to increase the weight of product being sold Supply Source produced in Mexico and South America there is a small amount of cultivation in US (indoors) Marijuana generates over 60% of all revenue in Mexican Drug Mafia Columbia is another major foreign supplier Cultivation Type of cut takes 68 months from planting to harvesting example: 100 plants could bring in a revenue of $480,000 per crop very lucrative business Outdoor Factors that affect growth climate, water, light, location, soil, rater of growth, seeds Indoors Factors The potency is better controlled, 63% of distributors of marijuana is indoor, manage all areas of growth, hydropontics medium of rocks/ gravel for growth that is submerged in water with nutrients essential for growth being pumped through accelerates growth (18 24 hours of light exposure) Harvesting and Storing As buds mature, there is an increase in amount of resin but will lose potency over time Ideal harvest time is when the plant turns from bright green the leaves are fully dried for 7 days and can then be stored without losing potency for years A mature marijuana plant is green, leafy bush with significant odor Plastic bags or wraps depending on substance amount Plant has an odd number of leaves Ingestion Marijuana is not active until the components separated from carboxyl groups not psychoactive When marijuana is mixed in food, must use three times the amount to achieve joint effect Effects There are no current definitive answers of how marijuana affects the body this is why it’s considered a CI Accelerated heart rate and at times it can be 50% higher than resting rate Dryness of mouth/ throat Reddening of eyes Slight drop in body temperature Moderate blood pressure increase Effects vary from individual to individual, dose to dose the larger the amount ingested, the greater the high and length of time it will last Average high is between 58 hours Most common psychological responses: euphoria, relaxation, rapid mood changes (dictated by the environment), increase in sensory perceptions, anxiety, panic, hallucinations, reduce ability to concentrate, impairs short term memory There are links showing marijuana to learning issues due to short term memory loss and inability to concentrate High enough doses of THC can impair the ability to drive Marijuana mixed with alcohol (over .04 BAC) can double the negative effects of alcohol Withdrawal 73% of young people (1217) end up in drug treatment serious withdrawal for 56 days Symptoms: cramping, drug cravings, insomnia, irritability, During this stage marijuana is seen as a gateway drug Medical Marijuana Prior to MTA in 1937 there were over 28 medicines that contained marijuana In 2006 the FDA approved synthetic naboline, S2 nausea from chemo therapy is allowed in California (given to any condition that substantially limited the ability of a person to conduct one or more major like activity) in accordance with ADA Other illnesses treated with it: AIDS/HIV, anorexia cancer, arthritis chronic pain, glaucoma, migraines, chronic nervous system disorders Pharmacology Affects CB1 and CB2 receptors CB1 is located in the brain and accounts for all psychological and physical effects of marijuana THC will bind to CB1 receptor control all major functions: coordination, voluntary movement, short term memory, all visual and auditory processing, and most basic cognitive functions CB2 receptor is located on white blood cells in the immune system but has no physical effect on body There is very little data on marijuana overdoses normally death is due to activities attempted during the high, not from the actual drug but the behaviors associated with it FSC 440 Drug Identification September 14, 2016 MDMA CSA Schedule I Active Substance: 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine Street names: ecstasy Category: Hallucinogen Street Prices: $1050 per tablet General Information A patent on MDMA was issued in 1914 to a German drug company It was developed as a precursor to make other therapeutic drugs Became the “in” drug for parties and was legal for open sale Research was done on it to control metal inconsistencies the US Army in 1953 manipulated with the formula to use for psychological warfare Issues with illicit production so the DEA was called into research the drug 1984 Toxicity In 1984 MDMA was placed as an emergency schedule I drug based on the laboratory research of MDMA, it was to remain on the list due to the significant control over decreasing serotonin levels The reduction in serotonin levels can cause permanent neurotoxic damage Some animals were able to regenerate the damaged areas in their brain but not all could achieve this—especially humans Supply By 2003 the Netherlands and Belgium produced an estimated 80% of the MDMA used worldwide By 2004 over 33 countries were producing MDMA like LSD this drug has a time consuming process to produce because it is complex and involves many hazardous chemicals. Due to the extensive research on MDMA there were various published formulations of how to make this drug 20 formulations published with over 200 different chemicals involved between them most of the main chemicals used are caustic, corrosive, or flammable MDMA appears similar to methamphetamines and has a faint licorice like odor Until 2004, most of the trafficking of MDMA into the US was controlled by the Israeli Mafia it is believed that the Mexican drug cartel has taken over that position Recreational use of MDMA became a problem in the 1990’s due to grunge music The availability peaked in 2001 over 2 million doses of MDMA were seized in 2006, of these 19% of the seizures took place in Canada Purity Of all the MDMA seized, on 50% of the tablets contained MDMA as the only active ingredient many of the additives include: MDA, MDEA, PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, and methamphetamines stimulants like caffeine were added to boost longevity of effect Ingestion MDMA is available in powder, capsule, and tablet form it can be snorted or melted down the most effective route is by mouth Effects are dose related a typical dose is 2575mg of MDMA doses ranging from 50 75mgs boost the users’ creativity levels doses higher than 75mgs allows the person to go through selfexploration Physical Effects Physical effects set in within 30 minutes of oral ingestion MDMA causes large amounts of serotonin to be released from the brain and then block it from reabsorbing what has been released this gives people the energy to dance longer Due to the flood of serotonin, MDMA has been linked to many deaths by serotonin syndrome Because the users are focused on how they feel and having a good time, they often become severely dehydrated There is an increase in heart rate and energy User can lose sense of time go on for hours without end Psychological Effects Initial effects are present within 3045 minutes of ingestion and the greatest effects are felt 6090 minutes after ingestion Most noticeable effects wear off in 46 hours Users generally feel emotional closeness and the desire to touch one another Reserve is down so the user will take more risks selfesteem and empathy goes up Lingering Effects Anxiety, confusion, depression, impaired memory (long and short term), irritability, panic attacks, paranoia, reduced selfcontrol Raves Originated on the Mediterranean Island of Ibiza in 1986 Early raves were known as breakin or hit and run parties LSD, ketamine, GHB was the ravers drug of choice but other drugs were coingested MDMA later became the drug of choice at raves because it had longer effects, even when it was mixed with other drugs Pharmacology Serotonin levels in the brain are severely depleted due to MDMA, chronic users can lose up to 5080% of normal serotonin levels Those who used for a short time frame took several weeks for their levels to normalize Chronic users will never restore their serotonin levels Peyote CSA Schedule I Active Substance: Mescaline Street Names: cactus, button Category: Hallucinogen Street Price: 50¢ to $5 a button The Peyote Cactus does not have spines and the flower on top is referred to as a button The button contains over 30 alkaloids with the most active ingredient being mescaline The average mescaline concentration is 6% per button The demand is greater than the supply and in 1991 Mexico listed it as an endangered plant It is known to have a bitter taste and has a very limited growing region (South Texas to North Mexico) Outside of Native American rituals, peyote is considered a CI contraband History Over 3,000 years ago, the Indians in Mexico consumed peyote for rituals to open their minds for inspiration, communication, and was also used for medical issues like fatigue and hunger Peyote spread to the lower regions of US in 1800’s, nonIndians viewed this as a devilish act and because of this it was outlawed in 1863 this banned anyone from using peyote and shortly after the Native American Indian Church fought to use this as a staple in their religious ceremonies Both mescaline and the plant are prohibited in the United States In Canada, mescaline is a CII but is legal to grow the plant Peyote became popular on the street in the 1950’s and was used as a supplement to other illicit drugs for a short time from the 60s70s LSD users took more buttons than actual LSD (because LSD was though to destroy chromosomes) but this was short lived because LSD was easier and cheaper to find Supply Sources Peyote only grows in South Texas and Northern Mexico growers must be licensed currently there are only 3 distributors registered to the DEA and is only available for purchase by Native American Indians with a proper license (1/4 at least) All American growth and distribution is controlled by Texas To harvest the drug only the button is cut off from the top of the cactus. The root can stay in the ground and is left to grow more buttons. It takes approximately 3 years for a new button to grow but one cactus and grow multiple buttons at once Approximately 2 million buttons are harvested each year leaving 750100 buttons a year for active church members Mescaline can be extracted from button using various organic solvents which will form sharp needle shape crystals will appear translucent and taste bitter After harvesting, the buttons are dried for 7 days. During which the buttons will turn from green to brown but a fully dried button will hold onto potency for several years Method of Ingestion Buttons are usually chewed and swallowed The taste is bitter and can cause nausea A dosage needed to achieve effects is 412 buttons at a time to consume these they can be eaten whole, ground up and put into capsules, or made into dark black tea On occasion peyote has been ground up and smoked with marijuana leaves Effects After about 30 minutes to an hour of ingestion the initial effects are felt Psychological effects are most dominant The biggest effect is on visual perception and distortion of color Synesthesia users experience a cross of senses smell sounds and taste color Dilated pupils, elevated blood pressure, headache, increased body temperature and heart rate, lack of coordination, muscle tension, nausea, and vomiting Mescaline will affect an individual depending on the type of atmosphere the user is in When a bad experience happens with mescaline the user has a “talk down” because they need someone to help them keep calm by talking them through their hallucinations There is no evidence of long term addiction Tolerance is produced almost immediately a full tolerance lasts 36 days and peyote will not be effective again until the individual abstains for 710 days Native American Church Peyote is used for many religious ceremonies such as marriages, birthdays, cure an illness, or as a means of communication with the great spirit. Peyote can be legally used by any member of the Native American Church who is at least ¼ or greater Indian blood Pharmacology The hallucinogenic and behavioral effects of mescaline appear to involve the stimulation of both serotonin and dopamine in various area of the brain This will cause distorted perception, hypersensitivity to sounds, and warped time and thoughts are the most common effects associated with peyote Unlike MDMA, peyote will allow for reabsorption of chemicals and avoid long term effects that lead to injury or death
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