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HIST 110A - Egyptian History

by: Caru

HIST 110A - Egyptian History HIST 110A

Cal State Fullerton

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Egyptian History
World Civilization to 16th Century
M. Walia
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caru on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by M. Walia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
I. Egyptian History  A. Egyptology  1. from June to October, the Nile floods → when it returns it leaves silt(fertile soil)  • grow crops from October to February  • harvest crops from February to June  2. Nile provided food: fish, muscles, turtles  3. divided into 31 dynasties         B. Protodynastic Period(Dynasties 1 – 3)  1. 3100 B.C. ~ Narmer unifies upper and lower Egypt → becomes first pharaoh →  builds a capital in Memphis  2. came up with solar calendar(365 days); day = 2 unites of 12 hours  3. first to do brain surgery(drill hole in head to remove fluid)  4. began using hieroglyphics ~ 3100 B.C.  • “picture writing”; at first, it didn't work very well because one symbol could mean  several things  • created papyrus(paper) from reed  • created ink from gum and carbon by pressing them together  5. built first pyramid in 2650 B.C.  • Designed by Imhotep, who was also a surgeon; first commoner to become a “god”  when he died  • made of limestone  • “step” pyramid          C. Old Kingdom  1. 2500 B.C. ~ Great Pyramid is built for Pharaoh Cheops  • built in the Valley of the Kings  • covers 15 acres of land; made of 2.3 million blocks(2.5 tons/block); 495 feet high  2. Nubia = Sudan  • had quarries → cut limestone → sailed up the Nile with blocks → blocks dragged  to building site on sleds → ramp used to get to top → blocks dropped on top of  each other → took 20 years to build and 100,000 men  3. 2200 B.C. ~ country splits → second pharaoh in Thebes         D. First Intermediate Period ~ 2200 B.C.  1. Nomads begin robbing people  2. Mentuhoter becomes pharaoh in Thebes → takes over all of Egypt         E. Middle Kingdom ~ 2050 B.C.  1. Mentuhoter kicks out the nomads  2. time of trade → trades with fertile crescent  3. Senworsret III ~ R. 1863 – 1842 B.C.  • Wants to trade with Africa → wants gold, slaves, ivory, and animal skins  ◦ to get there, he had to go through Nubia → builds fortresses along the Nile to  protect businessmen  4. 1700 B.C. ~ country invaded from the North by “sea people”(refugees) → conquer top  half        of Egypt(lower Egypt)         F. 2​  Intermediate Period  1. 1575 B.C. ~ sea people forced to leave         G. New Kingdom ~ 1575 B.C.  1. Time of great pharaohs  2. Thutmose III ~ R. 1479 – 1425 B.C.  • Created Egyptian army → generals = his sons; used chariots  • attacks fertile crescent → invades 17 times to frighten the local population  ◦ takes over the holy land(wheat), Lebanon(oranges and lemons), and  Syira(wood)  ▪ also gets slaves from each area  3. Ramesses II ~ R. 1278 – 1213 B.C.  • Had 8 wives and 100 kids → 2 of his wives were his daughters  • conquers Nubia  • builds new cities and temples(built by slaves)  4. 1130 B.C. ~ inflation → people become poor → begin committing crimes  5. 1087 B.C. ~ New Kingdom ends         H. Egyptian Women  1. didn't have total equality, but had basic equality  • could own property(including slaves), start a business, testify in court, or be sued  2. didn't know how to read or write  • very few knew how(royalty)  • wasn't that bad because most men were illiterate too  3. main job: have kids  4. marriage was based on monogamy(except for pharaoh)  5. divorce was uncommon and discouraged  • reason: infertility  • wanted women with child­bearing hips  6. Queen Nefertiti ~ 1350 B.C.  • Used her beauty to advance  • most of what we know about her is from wall paintings  ◦ painted at equal size of her husband ~ significant because it suggested that she  was equal in every way  ◦ painted doing sacrifices to gods → only pharaoh was meant to do this  ◦ painted as a soldier with a sword and shield, killing people  7. Ikhnaton ~ “The Heretic”  • married to Nefertiti  • didn't believe in polytheism → only believed in Rei  ◦ closed the temples to other gods  • once he died, the Egyptians went back to worshiping multiple gods  • to punish him and his wife, the Egyptians removed their bodies from the pyramid  and threw them away         I. Egyptian Religion  1. polytheism – worshiped multiple gods  • Re = sun; top god  • Osiris = lord of the gods  • Isis = mother goddess; in charge of infertility; Osiris's sister/wife  • Horace = god of sky; had head of a hawk  • Anubis = god of embalming(preparing/preserving dead bodies); had head of a  jackal  • Thoth = god of wisdom/writing  2. thought entire universe was all water except the earth(sky = blue = water)  • sun enters its day boat and sails through the sky  • Apep(serpent) – sun's enemy; will attempt to swallow(and sometimes succeed)  the sun  • at night, the sun enters the water below the Earth(duat) in its night boat  3. Afterlife/Underworld  ▪ you wake up and will come before Osiris and 42 judges to be judged; 42 judges  because Egypt had 42 districts  • your heart will be weighed by Maat(goddess of justice) → if your heart is  lighter than a feather, you will live forever in the afterlife → if it's heavier,  you will be devoured by a crocodile  • Osiris and judges reach a decision and Thoth records it  ▪ thought people would need their bodies in the afterlife → preserved them  ▪ tomb size would depend on wealth; buried with possessions  ▪ Old Kingdom ~ 4​  Dynasty → organs were harvested and put in jars except heart;  put natron on body to prevent decay → wrap body in white linen(mummy)  ▪ mortuary cults pray for a person's well­being in the afterlife  4. Pharaoh  th​ ▪ part god – part man ~ belief started int eh 4​  dynasty  • named them(ex. Son of Re; Living Horus)  ▪ if someone tried to hurt the pharaoh, Egypt will suffer the punishment of the  gods(earthquakes, famine, floods)  ▪ in return for taking care of the dead in the afterlife, the gods wanted sacrifices →  usually carried out by the pharaoh → essential to be safe  ▪ Great pyramid built so the pharaoh would receive the tomb he deserved  • the sun will shine down and the pharaoh will travel up the rays to the day boat  → will sail across the sky for eternity  


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