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by: Becca Petersen

Astronomy AST2002-16Fall 0001

Becca Petersen
University of Central Florida

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Week 1 lecture notes!
Dr. James Cooney
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AST2002-16Fall 0001 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. James Cooney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Astronomy in Science at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 09/15/16
Astronomy Chapters 1 -3 (book/class notes) Picture  of  the  day:     Density  of  “stuff”    (gas  and  dust)  is  actually  very  thin     Hydrogen  and  helium  –  almost  all  of  the  universe  is  hydrogen  and  the  parts   that  aren’t  hydrogen  are  helium     Scattered  blue  light  –  is  light  reflectant  and  scattered  off  of  the  new  stars   Red  light  –  is  omitted  light  from  the  gases       10  billion  is  10^10   1  million  is  10^6     10^11+10^14=10^25  (just  know  how  that  works)       Earth  –  solar  system  –  galaxy-­‐  local  group  –  super  cluster  –  universe     Dimensions and units:   Length-­‐     SI  (shorthand  for  the  metric  system)  –  meter  –   distance  light   travels  in  1/299792458  s  –  meter  becomes  too  cumbersome  to  deal   with  when  distances  become  too  large.    So  in  order  to  not  have  to  carry   around  a  bunch  of  powers  of  tens  we  us  the  following  .  .  .       Astronomical  Unit    (AU)  –  150  million  km  –   average  distance   from  the  earth  to  the  sun  –  an  average  because  we  don’t  orbit  in  a   perfect  circle  around  the  sun  (standard  unit  of  distance  for  anything   within  our  solar  system)     Light  Year  –  9.5  trillion  km  –   the  distance  that  light  can  travel   in  a  vacuum  in  one  year  –  it  is  not  time  it  is  a  distance  –  good  for   measuring  our  neighborhood  as  far  as  stars  are  concerned     Parsec  –   How  far  away  a  star  would  have  to  be  to  appear  to   shift  by  one  arc  second  when  the  earth  moves  by  one  AU.    30   trillion  km  (definition  is  a  little  complicated  but  it  is  essentially  three   light  years)       2  concepts  that  go  into  its  definition:         Concept  1:    Parallax  –  it  is  something  you   experience  in  your  everyday  life  –  it  is  the  apparent  motion  of   something  not  because  it’s  actually  moving  but  because  the  observation   point  has  changed.    We  can  use  that  to  measure  the  distance  to  stars.     The  closer  the  object  is,  the  more  it  will  shift  (when  we  switch   eyes/observation  points)       Ex:    hold  out  your  finger  at  extended  arms  length  and  close  one   eye.    Then  switch  and  close  the  other.    The  point  of  your  finger  will  shift.     Parallax  only  works  with  nearby  stars  but  the  more  the  stars  shift   the  closer  it  is.           Concept  2: Arc  minutes  -­‐  You  are  really  measuring   an  angle  when  you’re  measuring  how  something  shifts.    In  astronomy   you  measure  angles  by  arc  minutes.       There  are  360  degrees  in  a  circle.    1  degree  =  60  arc  minutes      One  arc  minute  can  be  divided  up  into  60  pieces  to  be  called  an   arc  second.         Si  second  duration  of  9129631770  periods  of  radiation  given  off   by  hyperfine  transition  cesium  133     Mass  –  SI  kilogram  –  standard  kg  located  in  France     Solar  mass  =  mass  of  the  sun       Chapter  2:  The  Night  Sky       General  patterns  in  the  sky…  (Chapter  preview)   There  are  patterns  of  motions  in  the  sky       The  sunrises  and  sets  (so  does  everything  else…moon,  stars,   planets,  etc.)     The  circling  sky  is  a  result  of  the  rotation  of  the  earth  on  its  access   The  orbit  of  the  earth  around  the  sun  combined  with  the  earth’s   access  tilt  is  also  the  reason  for  seasons.   The  moons  orbit  around  the  earth  causes  it  to  go  through   different  phases.    The  ancient  mystery  of  the  Planets  –  the  various  orbits   around  the  sun.       Day  –  earth’s  access   Week -­‐  planets’  orbit  –  Mercury,  Venus,  Mars,  Jupiter,  moon,  sun.   The  7-­‐day  week  was  created  named  after  those  objects^     Month -­‐  the  moon’s  orbit  around  the  earth   Year -­‐  the  earths  orbit  around  the  sun       Constellations:   A  region  of  the  sky,  within  official  borders  set  in  1928  by  the  IAU   Often  recognizable  by  a  pattern  or  grouping  of  stars     - Constellations,  while  interesting,  are  not  really  of  that  much  use  in   astronomy.    Astronomy  is  more  concerned  with  borders  of   constellations.    So  stars  that  do  not  constitute  the  stick  figure  of   Orion  are  still  considered  part  of  that  constellation  if  they  fall   within  the  set  borders.         To  us  the  sky  looks  like  a  hemispherical  screen.    We  can  only  understand   and  see  a  2  dimensional  view  of  a  3d  universe.    So  when  you  look  up  you   perceive  stars  and  planets  to  be  close  together  but  that’s  not  necessarily   the  case.       There  are  coordinates  in  the  sky  just  like  there  are  coordinates  on  the   earth     Coordinates on the earth:   Latitude  is  where  you  are  north  and  south  referencing  the  equator   Longitude  –  prime  meridian  is  in  Greenwich  England.    (We  are  west  of   the  prime  meridian)     Sphere  of  the  sky  is  called  the  celestial  sphere  –  obviously  in  real  life  the   universe  is  not  a  sphere  –  but  that’s  what  they  used  to  believe.    So  even   though  it’s  not  a  physical  reality  it’s  useful  to  describe  what  we  see.    And   we  can  apply  the  same  latitude  longitude  concepts  to  describe  the  night   sky  (picture  earth  sitting  smack  in  the  middle  of  another  sphere)     Reference  slide  for  photo     Take  earth’s  equator  and  move  it  out  that  becomes  the  celestial  equator.   Same  thing  for  the  celestial  poles   Ecliptic  –  a  word  we  use  for  the  path  that  the  sun  takes  around  the   celestial  sphere    


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