Theories of Personality Lecture 6
Theories of Personality Lecture 6 PSYC 3570
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3570 at Auburn University taught by Elissa Hack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chapter 6 Lecture Notes September 13, 2016 The Neo-Freudian Theories: Relevant Research Chapter Outline • Anxiety and coping strategies • Psychoanalytic concepts and aggression • Attachment style and adult relationships Anxiety • Unpleasant emotional experience o Worry. Panic. Fear. Dread • Much more prevalent now than before due to added pressures on kids & it was less acceptable back then. o Kids used to be put in asylums for anxiety • Types o Reality anxiety or objective anxiety à Response to a perceived threat in the real world § Example: • Bear coming to attack. • Dodging car accident o Neurotic anxiety à Experienced when unacceptable id impulses are dangerously close to breaking into consciousness § Leads the ego to use defense mechanisms § Social standardsà what’s acceptable/what’s not o Moral anxiety à Brought about by the superego in response to id impulses that violate the superego’s strict moral code § Personal standards you hold for yourself • Coping strategies: Conscious efforts to reduce anxiety in the face of a perceived threat o Talking to people. Working out. Listen to music. Etc o Women report using more coping strategies than men § More acceptable for women so they’re more likely to report. There may not be a true difference in gender & the using of coping mechanism o Type of strategy varies from person to person § Can learn new coping strategies but most people use similar ones they used when they were younger Identifying Basic Distinctions à Useful for Researchers • Dividing coping strategies into those in which • People take an active role to deal with the problem • People try to avoid the problem • Separating the active-role strategies into those: • Aimed at the source of the stress • Focused on the emotional reaction to the experience Chapter 6 Lecture Notes September 13, 2016 Types of Coping Strategies 1. Financial issues a. Work on saving & getting a 2 job i. Targeting the problem head on 2. Not getting into dream school a. Use rationalization à this is a good thing. Now I can stay close to family. They didn’t have the best program anyway 3. Not going to the doctor when you know you should a. Ignoring the problem Effectiveness of Coping Strategies Active strategies Effective in helping people cope with stressors than avoidance strategies Typically more successful Avoidance strategies Rarely successful in reducing anxiety or helping people overcome tragedy Makes people more vulnerable to stress-related health problems Cardiovascular disease. hypertension Creates additional problems Can be a good short term strategy Ex) If your fighting with your boyfriend, avoiding that conflict with allow you to have more study time rather then trying to face it head on and waste hours arguing Can lead to dependencies (alcohol, drugs, etc) Coping Flexibility • Ability to effectively adjust the use of different coping strategies according to a given situation Chapter 6 Lecture Notes September 13, 2016 • Important to improve mental health • Helps one to: o Have higher sense of well-being o Experience fewer emotional problems Psychoanalytic Concepts and Aggression • Frustration-aggression hypothesis Aggression is always a consequence of frustration Occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration Contrariwise, the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression • Aggression ceases when people experience catharsis Modified frustration-aggression hypothesis based on psychoanalytic theory Frustration leads to indirect expressions of aggression Indirect aggression can be expressed by: Displacing the aggression to a new target Attacking the source of frustration in an indirect manner Using sublimation Frustration and Aggression • Advantages of new approach at frustration and aggression over the original hypothesis o Explains why frustration does not always lead to aggression o Clarifies why certain thoughts increase or decrease the likelihood of acting aggressively Displacing Aggression • People displace aggression from a frustrating source to an innocent target o Ex § Getting angry at boss and engage in counter productive work behavior or to take out frustration/anger on family members • Triggered displaced aggression o Overreacting aggressively to a small offence or a minor annoyance Catharsis and Aggression • Prediction from the frustration-aggression hypothesis o Need to aggress is reduced after a cathartic release of tension • Research indicates that aggression does not lead to tension-reducing catharsis • Research indicates following reasons for why aggression-breeds-aggression o Acting aggressively leads to a kind of disinhibition § Once we violate one social norm (hitting someone) might release anger/feel good at that time. So we continue to use it & make us more comfortable to do it again and again Chapter 6 Lecture Notes September 13, 2016 o Presence of aggressive cues o Cathartic release of tension feels good Object Relations Theory • Emphasizes on early childhood experiences o Didn’t focus on internal drives like freud • Children develop an unconscious representation of significant objects in his or her environment o The kind of attachment children feel with their parents influences their ability to develop meaningful attachments with significant others as adults o Child uses parental figures as a guiding source of what different interactions with other individuals should be Attachment Theory • Describes the attachment relationships between infants and their caregivers o Secure § Mothers are attentive and responsive to their child § Helps infant understand that mother is responsive and accessible even if she is not physically present o Anxious-ambivalent § Leads to anxiety and crying in infants as soon a they are separated from their mothers o Avoidant § Mothers are not very responsive to the child § Child becomes aloof and emotionally detached from the mother Adult Attachment Styles • Research indicates that: o Secure adults describe positive relationships with parents and a warm and trusting family environment o Anxious-ambivalent people recall little parental support o Avoidant people describe their relationships with family members as distrustful and emotionally distant Figure 6.4 - Four Types of Attachment Chapter 6 Lecture Notes September 13, 2016 Attachment Style and Romantic Relationships • Adults with a secure attachment style: o Are more satisfied with their relationships than people in the other categories o Characterize their romantic relationship with love, strong commitment, and trust o Accept and support their partner despite the partner’s personal faults o Have warmer and more intimate conversations o Share personal information • Research indicates that people change their attachment style when they enter a secure, long-lasting adult relationship Attachment styles are stable across our lives but can change once we enter a stable loving relationship
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