Biology 196 (Human Nutrition), Textbook Notes
Biology 196 (Human Nutrition), Textbook Notes BIOL 196
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Pagel on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 196 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Susan M. Krueger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Dietary Planning Reading, pages 47-57 of the Textbook (9/13/16) *Planning Your Diet -There are a lot of tools available for completing a dietary assessment, including the fact that many reputable organizations have summarized what a healthy diet looks like. -Food Guidance Systems have been in place since the late 19 century. -Since 1894, there have been a succession of federally supported recommendations called USDA Food Guides (now called USDA Food Patterns). -A common practice is to group nutritionally similar foods together in order to establish “food groups” and to make suggestions as to how much we should eat from a given group. The composition and number of food groups has changed over the years as science evolves and socioeconomic times change. -1980: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the USDA released an expanded form of recommendations called the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. ~Details included how good dietary habits can promote good health and reduce the risk of disease. ~These are revised every 5 years to reflect new scientific discoveries. -The USDA also has a website meant to illustrate their important components called MyPlate, which makes suggestions on how to improve your diet and overall lifestyle. *2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans -Developed by a highly esteemed committee of nutrition scientists and not only recommended dietary regulations, but also physical activity. To do that, they had to keep these things in mind: ~Nearly 15% of American households do not have sufficient means to acquire adequate foods for their dietary needs and those that do often have less than ideal intake. ~Poor diet and physical inactivity are the most important factors contributing to the overweight epidemic. -The main goals of the guidelines were to help individuals: ~Maintain energy balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight. ~Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages. -The guidelines highlights 4 major concepts: ~Balance Calories to Manage Weight ~Reduce Certain Foods and Food Components ~Increase Certain Foods and Nutrients ~Build Healthy Eating Patterns *Balance Calories to Manage Weight -One should always try to balance the number of calories they consume with the ones they expend. Key Recommendations: -Focus especially on the total number of calories consumed. -Monitor food intake, body weight, and physical activity so poor choices can be detected. -When eating out, choose smaller portions or lower-calorie options. -Prepare, serve, and consume smaller portions of high-calorie foods and beverages. -Eat a nutrient-dense breakfast and limit “screen time” to two hours/day. -Increase physical activity and reduce caloric intake. -Do this during every stage of life. *Reduce Certain Foods and Food Components Key Recommendations: -Read Nutrition Facts labels for information on sodium content and purchase low-sodium foods. -Consume more fresh foods and less processed foods that are high in sodium. -Eat more home-prepared foods and use little or no salt while cooking. -While eating at restaurants, ask that salt not be added to your food or consume low sodium options. -Focus on eating more nutrient-dense foods from all food groups. -Limit the amount of solid fats or added sugars when eating out. -Consume less foods and beverages that contain solid fats or added sugar. -Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fats. -If you consume alcohol, consume it in moderation. ~Up to one drink/day for women and up to two drinks/day for men. *Increase Certain Foods and Nutrients -Nutrients that are lacking in the American diet are referred to as “nutrients of concern.” Key Recommendations: -Increase vegetable and fruit intake. -Eat a variety of vegetables, especially peas and beans and vegetables that are dark green, red, or orange. -Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains. -Increase intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products or fortified soy beverages. -Choose a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meat, poultry, eggs, beans, peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds. -Replace protein foods high in solid fat with choices that are lower in solid fat and calories. -Choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and dairy products. *Build Healthy Eating Patterns Key Recommendations: -Select an eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time at an appropriate calorie level. -Account for all foods and beverages consumed and assess how they fit within a total healthy eating pattern. -Follow food safety recommendations when preparing and eating foods to reduce the risk of food- borne illness. *Food Patterns -Includes five food groups: vegetables, fruits, grain products, dairy products, and protein foods. -Some food groups have subcategories. ~Example (vegetable subgroups): Dark green (spinach, broccoli) Red and orange (tomatoes, pumpkin) Beans and peas (kidney beans, lentils) Starchy (white potatoes, corn) “Other” (iceberg lettuce, onions) -There are 12 food patterns based on caloric needs. The more food you need, the more you should eat from eat food group. -Eat “nutrient-dense” foods, including lean meats and poultry, seafood, unsalted nuts and seeds, beans and peas, fruit, whole grains, all vegetables, eggs, and low-fat dairy products. -Beverages contribute a high amount of calories through drink such as soda, alcohol, sports drinks, and energy drinks. Ultimately, water is recommended the most. *Helping Americans Make Healthy Choices/MyPlate -The 2010 Dietary Guidelines acknowledges that improving one’s health is an individual process and everyone has a responsibility to contribute to the overall health of the nation through their own goals. -The guidelines aim to: ~Ensure that all Americans have access to nutritious foods and opportunities for physical activity. ~Facilitate individual behavior change through environmental strategies. ~Set the stage for lifelong healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management behaviors. -People needs to work with state, local, and federal programs in order to make that happen. -A useful tool for helping Americans make changes to their diet is MyPlate. -MyPlate: ~Recommends daily intake of the five food groups based on individual need, taking into account sex, age, and physical activity level. ~Will provide you with the recommended food-intake patterns, serving sizes, and menu selection. ~This can also be tailored to breastfeeding and pregnant women. ~You can also plan your menu for your needs and recommend physical activities. -Key Concepts of MyPlate: ~Build a healthy plate. ~Cut back on foods high in solid fats, added sugars, and salts. ~Eat the right amount of calories for you. ~ Be physically active “your way.” -User-friendly messages from MyPlate: ~Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. ~Enjoy your food but eat less. ~Drink water instead of sugary drinks. ~Make at least half of your grains whole grains. ~Avoid oversized portions. ~Compare amounts and sodium and choose the lower option. ~Switch to fat free or low-fat (1%) milk. -Tips for analyzing your diet with MyPlate: ~Detail is important (preparation, brand names, etc.) ~Measure (estimate serving sizes, weigh/measure food). ~Choose “normal” days (not holidays; typically 2 week days and 1 weekend day). ~Don’t change your diet (eat normally so the results will be accurate). *2020 Goals -Healthy People 2020: Outlines overall health objectives for the U.S. to achieve by 2020. -Meant to achieve 4 main goals: ~Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, or premature death. ~Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. ~Create social and physical environments that promote good health. ~Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages. -Includes 39 specific topic areas including weight, activity, and disease. Human Nutrition Research Methods, pages 13-21(9/12/16) *The Scientific Method -Scientists test theories by way of a series of steps called the scientific method. -There are three main steps in the scientific method: making an observation, proposing hypothesis, and testing the hypothesis. -The observation must be accurate and complete, meaning considering multiple questions in relation to the observation (why it is, how it happens, the likeliness of one group compared to another). The hypothesis explains the researcher’s observations as why a particular phenomenon happens. There are two general types of hypotheses: ~Causal hypotheses: Those that predict cause-and-effect relationships. Change in one factor causes a direct change in the other. ~Correlation hypotheses: Those that predict the association of two factors; two things that occur simultaneously but don’t have any influence on each other. There are two types of correlation: ~Positive correlation: The variables change in the same direction; as one increases, so does the other and vice versa. ~Negative/Inverse correlation: As one variable changes in one direction, the other variable changes in the opposite direction; as one increase, the other decreases and vice versa. -It is helpful for scientists to know what kind of relationship exists between the variables. There are two types: ~Simple relationship: one that cannot be altered by other factors. It is not dependent on other factors such as age, gender, etc. ~Complex relationship: one that involves one or more interactions. It is affected by things such as age, gender, genetics, etc. -Interaction: When one factor can alter or modify a relationship between the two other factors. -Scientists typically like to start with simple relationships before moving to explore the variations among the factors. A lot of simple relationships turn out to be more complex than originally thought. *Data and Correlation Experiments (still a part of the scientific method) -Data collection is the final step in the scientific method and requires an appropriately designed and carefully conducted method to fit the hypothesis and the researcher. -Epidemiologic study: A type of experiment used to test a correlation hypothesis. The researchers make observations and record information without asking participants to change any behaviors or undergo any treatment. This should never be used to predict causal relationships. -There are two very famous epidemiologic studies relating to nutrition: ~Framingham Heart Study: An experiment conducted in the 1940s which yielded the first significant correlation between what a person eats and his or her risk for heart disease. ~The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): A survey conducted in the late 1960s where researchers simultaneously monitored the nutrition and health of the U.S. population, as directed by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). -Advantages and limitations of epidemiologic studies: ~They can be used to study complex interactions among genetics, lifestyles, and environmental factors. ~Often don’t require extensive technical or lab training of research personnel. ~They don’t prove that change in one factor causes change in another. ~The subjects included in the study might not be representative of the entire population. *Tests of Causality/Intervention Studies -Intervention studies: Experiments that use humans, animals, or cell cultures in order to compare the results of the experiment against a control or untreated group. Something is altered or changed in order to determine its effect on something else. -Control group: The group of participants who do receive the treatment and are used as a basis for comparison against those who did receive treatment. -It is important to avoid any type of biases that might change the results of the study. These include: ~The Hawthorne effect: When a person knows they are being studied, he or she will alter his or her behavior in order to conform to the researcher’s desired outcome. ~The Placebo effect: When the control group is given a placebo (a fake, ineffectual version of the treatment), and they report feeling different just because they’ve taken something. ~Researcher bias: Changing the results of the experiment based on the researcher knowing who got the treatment and who didn’t. -To minimize these biases, researchers can conduct two different types of studies: ~Single-blind study: When the researchers know who got the treatment, but the participants do not. ~Double-blind study: When neither the researchers nor the participants know who got the treatment and who didn’t. ~Placebos are typically given to the control group so they can’t distinguish between who did and who didn’t get the treatment. -Another way to avoid bias is by random assignment, which is when the control and treatment groups are picked without specific criteria (randomly). -This minimizes the possibility of confounding variables. ~Confounding variables: Factors other than the ones of interest that might influence the outcome of the study. -Confounding variables can also be avoided by excluding certain participants from the study that don’t meet the exact criteria. ~Example: When studying the effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on birth weight, one should exclude smokers because they also influence birth weight. -Advantages and Limitations of Intervention Studies ~They are powerful and can prove that two factors are causal in nature. ~The results can be directly applied to humans, which is typically not the case for animal and cell culture studies. ~They are often costly and time consuming. ~It’s often difficult to control for confounding factors, which may influence the data. *Animal and Cell Culture Studies -Animal studies can provide important information regarding nutrition and health, especially when, for unethical or practical reasons, humans are unavailable. -There is also less genetic variability among lab animals. -Limitations: ~It is sometimes questionable whether the collected data is applicable to humans or not. -Cell culture studies help to examine causal relationships as they happen outside of the body. -They typically happen in vitro, meaning “in glass.” -Human and animal experiments are conducted in vivo, or within the body. -Advantages and limitations to cell cultures: ~It is a powerful tool to study what is happening inside a cell in response to a particular treatment. ~However, cells that grow in a lab aren’t usually representative of normal, healthy cells. ~Cells in the body interact with other cells, which cannot be replicated in vitro. *Nutrition Claims -Reputable nutrition claims will typically come from peer-reviewed journals. -Peer-reviewed journals (#1): The journal was read, reviewed, and approved by a group of the researcher’s peers to determine the validity of the experiments as well as its results. -One should also ask who conducted the research (#2) to determine their qualifications for their claims. -One should also ask who paid for the research (#3) because sometimes those who fund the experiment have a personal or commercial stake in the results and can therefore, influence the outcome. -Once these three things have been determined, you can find details about the study on resources such as PubMed.* Here, you can evaluate the research for yourself. -Sometimes experiments don’t yield conclusive evidence, so public health experts typically wait for the results of multiple studies before they make certain health claims. -Make sure the claim is supported by major health organizations.