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Drugs and Behavior Week Two Notes

by: Sarah Kincaid

Drugs and Behavior Week Two Notes 333

Sarah Kincaid

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About this Document

These notes cover the notes from week two of class.
Drugs and Behavior
Class Notes
ToolsOfPharmacology, Graphs1-4, Table1
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Kincaid on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 333 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Caine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Tools of Pharmacology Terminology/Nomenclature Drug Classifications Behavioral/Clinical: what drug does to behavior Pharmacodynamic: how drug alters brain’s physiology (which brain system it targets)  Category linking Table One together Chemical: chemical functional/structural properties Important Abbreviations: C – chemical name G – generic name/nonproprietary (usually after 17 years) T – trade name/proprietary (first patent holds 17 years) Important Prefixes & Suffixes: -anti – opposite of -ergic – increase activity of neurotransmitter in brain system Formulation (2 types): 1. Combo of active ingredients & inert stuff (e.g. time release pills) 2. Combo of 2 drugs (e.g. hydrocodone = acetaminophen + codeine-like drug) Pharmacodynamic Behavioral/Clinical Examples Vicodin (T) aka hydrocodone (G)** Rx (stronger) Analgesics Heroin (T) aka diamorphine (G) Opioid* (pain reliever) Percocet (T) fentanyl (G) oxycodone (G) SSRI Antidepressants PROzac (T) aka fluoxetine (G) Major Tranquilizers aka antipsychotics (therapeutic Antidopaminergic effects), antischizophrenic Haldol (T) aka haloperidol (G)*** (therapeutic effects), neuroleptics (side effects) Minor Tranquilizers 1. anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) Valium (T) aka diazepam (G) GABAergic 2. sedative-hypnotic Ambien (T) (sleeping pills) Lunestra (T) "Psychedic" old school term LSD (C)**** Serotonergic for Hallucinogen Molly***** Dopaminergic Stimuluants aka Adderall (T) aka amphetamine (G) psychostimulants, anti- attention deficit Table 1 Asterisks: *Safety Pharmacology: drug as effective as Vicodin but with a higher TI Tools of Pharmacology **most prescribed, most addicted to, most die from OD, usually G ***Schizophrenics are most common patients ****no trade name bc not medication: in 1940s/50s Delsyd (T) contracted by military now Delsyd is a schedule 1 drug *****Molly helps relieve anxiety in individuals with PTSD (rat evidence) Pharmacodynamics: action mechanism usually synaptic for behavioral effect Pharmacokinetics: how drug is distributed throughout body including onset, duration of action, and time course Pharmacotherapeutics: clinically useful, aka therapeutic, effects of drugs (MED, ED ) 50 Toxicology: toxic or harmful drug effects (LD , 50 , T50 Threshold dose: only one subject has been effected by drug (used for minimum dosage) Descriptors: ED 50ffective dose): dose at which ½ of subjects are effected by drug MED (minimum effective dose, 100%): important to save $$$, reduce potential side effects (potential dependence, abuse, addiction), and beat out the current drugs TD 50 (toxic dose): dose at which ½ of subjects experience toxic effects of drug LD 50ethal dose): dose at which ½ of subjects die from drug TI (therapeutic index): higher #s are safer for TI because that means it will take a lot of Rx doses to kill somebody; when a TI is low, it might only take a few pills to kill somebody ????????50 ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? TI = = margin of safety = ????????50 ????ℎ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? Dose measurements - mg for humans (different doses: e.g. 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, etc) - mg/kg bw for rats/mice Dose Effect Functions Tools of Pharmacology *Note: TI of new drugs are compared to what is currently on the market Potency: leftward position (more potent), rightward position (less potent) Effectiveness: upper position (more effective), lower position (less effective) -NOTE- potency and effect are independent of each other. A very potent drug can be less effective than a less potent drug, or vice versa. Drug Administration: can sometimes change the drug effects Methods of drug admin: 1. Pill 2. Inhalation 3. IV o Dangers of IV: - Injection is more potent/dangerous than a pill - Sepsis: bacteria in bloodstream, deadly Vehicles (V): used to transport drug into body safely so the drug can be absorbed for IV (e.g. saline solution, electrolytes, etc) Agonist: stimulates neurotransmitter system Antagonist: blocks neurotransmitter system Ex. Heroin needs an opioid antagonist. Insert graph 3 & 4 Tools of Pharmacology Combining drugs by co-administration or “pretreatment”… Competitive antagonism: agonist and antagonist compete with each other, whichever has more wins Surmountable antagonism: antagonist is surmounted/undone by higher doses of agonist Rightward shift: moves dose effect curve to the right


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