US HISTORY Class Notes 3/23 & 3/25
US HISTORY Class Notes 3/23 & 3/25 1376
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meredith Johnson on Saturday March 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Curry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 03/28/15
Notes History 1376 32315 Presidential election of 1840 0 Candidates 0 Democrat President Martin Van Buren incumbent o Whig General William Henry Harrison Running mate DemocratJohn Tyler 0 Issues really got lost quota mockery of democracyquot 0 Daniel Webster quotThe time has come when the cries change every grievance says change we have fallen upon hard times and the remedy seems to be hard ciderquot o Marked the beginning of largescale manufacture of campaign souvenir 0 EC Booze manufactured logcabin cider Harrison rst president to campaign on his own behalf 0 quotThis is General Harrison look him Look at his bright and beaming eyequot 0 Introduced like a circus animal 0 Pioneered important campaign axiom quotthe more you talk the less you should sayquot When he did speak mostIy denounced the Democrats Whig Congressman wrote speechbook quotThe Royal Splendor of the Presidential Palacequot Attacked the democratic president for being too aristocratic the white house quotis a palace as splendid as that of the Caesars and as richly adorned as the proudest Asiatic mansionquot Climax of the speech Van Buren had a bathtub installed in the White House This speech set the tone for the entire debate simple life of the Whig candidate v the quotaristocraticquot Van Buren Issues if discussed at all written in very simple terms 0 Not only the Whigs did this Democrats campaign of Colonel DickJohnson Wanted to run for VP 0 However due to his open adultery was not nominated as a Democrat During campaign delivered incoherent but violent speeches threw open shirt to display war wounds quotRumpseydumpsey rumpseydumpsey Coone Johnson kiIIed Tecumsehquot What is the signi cance Whigs won the election in large measure because they39d Iearned better than the Democrats that the lesson for victory was appeal to the people 0 Narrow margin in the popular vote Harrison won overwhelmingly in the electoral college 80 of the eligible voters voted in the election More than twice as many voted in 3940 as in 3928 John Quincy Adams noted this 0 quotHere is a revolution in the habits and the manners of the peoplequot Marked the nal emergence of a fully developed American party system with vigorous twoparty politics in every section and all states First great quotimage campaignquot image trumped issues 0 The campaign did NOT clarify any of the major issues simply got quotlost in the shuf equot A new era in American politics from then on politics would have a broad popular base Ideas of individualism and democracy seemed here to stay 0 But belief in individualism often masked conformity o Often not democracy but a parody of democracy YET Americans believed they were democratic and individualistic embedded in American life but not American practices John Quincy Adams quotwhere will it all endquot o Moved from the 28 election based on Jacksons charisma to the 1840 bandwagon and imagecampaigning TODAY Do we talk about issues or image TOPIC V RACISM AND SLAVERY America began as a multiracial foIk movement peopled by Europeans mainly English and Africans not to mention American Indians already here native Americans In development of American culture considerable doubtanxiety about whether Americans were to de ne themselves and their country as multiracial or de ne it as whiteman country 0 Enduring concerns the relations among races Relationships between whites and blacks more often than not involved racism What is racism 0 Operational de nition a de nition based on the way people behave Any attitude action or institutional structure which subordinates a person or group because of their color Any etc etc which produces an inherent superiority of one race amp inferiority of other races 0 Example slavery institutional structure which is clearly a violent form of racism Background on racism in America From the time of the earliest settlers amp 300 years after overt racism was a central part of American life particularly but not exclusively in the south 0 During these centuries thousands of overtly racist laws social institutions behavior patterns living conditions distributions of political power public speech viewpoints habits even thought patterns FORCED nonwhite Americans into positions of subordination o Bloodiest of all American wars Civil War required to abolish slavery But even more racist laws remained in force until well into the 19605 some who argue that they are still in place in some part of the country Racism as an important characteristic of 19th century America 0 Sad but true the racial ideas of black Americans simply did not count for much during this period of American history 0 So most of what is being taught is what whites thought Origins of American racism from England 0 Clear that Englishmen from the rst meetings with Africans were convinced that black people were inferior of an inferior race not so clear whether Englishmen and Americans enslaved them because they thought they were inferior or because they considered them inferior because they were enslaved o CERTAIN in America the institution of slavery and the belief in the inferiority of black people developed together and reinforced one another 0 Institution and belief worked together a vicious circle 0 Thesis By the early 18005 Americans almost de ned the US as quotwhite man s countryquot Blacks generally not included in whites39 conception of America Most whites were racists quotAmericans were not blackquot because Americans thought that blacks were genetically inferior to whites RACIST o Cautions Most white Americans hardly gave a thought to black people were widely indifferent NO EVIDENCE that any racial group is superior or inferior to any other racial group 0 quotNo evidence to be drawn from history to support the idea that any race has more potential for cultural development than any otherquot 0 Although certain races share more potential for certain genes mankind is one contiguous species 0 English contact with Africans rst came in mid15005 emerging from a period of relative isolation o For centuries isolated by their geographical status 0 Until they began to send out explorers in the mid15005 0 Several things that struck the English Striking characteristics 0 they were quotheathensquot based on the English standards 0 Their culture was quotprimitivequot not like the English 0 Their skin color was black exaggerates of course most important because it was the most obvious o Sudden contact between one of the world39s whitest people and one of the world39s darkestskinned people and to the English skin color seemed to be the most important because it was the most visible and obvious o The term quotblackquot was one of the most emotionally loaded terms for 16th century Englishmen foul dirty malignant deadly disastrous etc etc Represented baseness and evil So terming an entire race with this word was problematic 0 Also came in contact with the anthropoid apes at the same time So concluded that Black people were like animals like beasts some placed them on the quotgreat chain of beingquot between apes and human beings Some thought that blacks were products of bestiality Most Englishmen thought black Africans to be more like animals than human beings emphasized the anima nature 0 quotCrude much more sexually aggressive than whitesquot THE AMERICAN COLONISTS INHERITED THE RACIAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS BLACKS FROM THE ENGLISH Racial attitudes of White Americans in colonialearly national America 0 1785 Jefferson39s scienti c treatise Notes on Virginia 0 Written in response to French scientist who asserted that everything in America including the organs of reproduction was smaller than its English counterpart 0 Published racial ideas and other quotscientificquot ndings 0 Jefferson on slavery Owned slaves but hated slavery although he thought black people were still inferior he felt a deep guilt about this Main concern seemed to be effect of slavery on masters not on slaves quotThere must doubtless be an unhappy in uence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions the most unremitting despotism on the one part and degrading submissions on the other Our children see this and learn to imitate itquot Concern for the children of the slave owners not the children of the slaves Described blacks in ways that are today embarrassing why did one of the most enlightened me of the time think of the people o quotl advance it as a suspicion only that the blacks are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mindquot Specifics o Inferior in the faculties of reason and imagination quotin memory equal to whites in reason much inferior and in imagination they are dull tasteless and anomalousquot Defended Native American against charges of inferiority by European scientists why 0 Part of America defense of Native Americans was defense of American environment Blacks to Jefferson and to many other white Americans were not part of America 0 Jeff did not believe that postslavery America would be harmonious quotDeeprooted prejudices entertained by the whites ten thousand recollections by the blacks of the injuries they have sustained the real distinctions which nature has made and many other circumstances will divide us into parties and produce convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of the one or the other racequot Admitted 25 years later that these views were incorrect made when he observed blacks in conditions of slavery 0 Racism was not a geographically separated institution even northerners racists French scientists concluded that racism was worth in the free North than in the enslaved South 1828 Connecticut Colonization society 0 quotAll the prejudices of society mark the people of color whether bond or free as the subjects of a degradation inevitable and incurable The African in this country belong by birth to the lowest station in society and fro that station he can never rise be his talent his enterprise his virtues what they mayquot RACIAL PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION FUNDAMENTAL FACTS OF AMERICAN LIFE AND HAVE BEEN SINCE THE VERY BEGINNING In the late 18505 racism came to be a part of the supreme law of the land famous case Dred Scott v Sanford 1857 Dred Scott taken from slave state to free Illinois and then to Missouri where slavery was abolished Subsequently brought back to Missouri in 1846 led a suit in Missouri to obtain his freedom on the grounds that he had become free when he was taken into free territory 0 Supreme Court ruled that Scott was not a citizen either of the United States or of Missouri and therefore not eligible to le suit in federal court Simply dismissed the case 0 Also declared Missouri compromise to be unconstitutional said that congress could not exclude slavery from the territories Notes History 1376 32515 United States supreme court wrote racism into the United States supreme law of the land Dred Scott v Sanford refer to previous notes ChiefJustice Taney on blacks in Dred Scott case 0 quotBlacks were not intended to be included under the word citizen in the Constitution and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States On the contrary they were at that time considered as a subordinate and inferior class of beings who had been subjugated by the dominant race and whether emancipated or not yet remained subject to their authority and had no rights or privileges but such as those who held the power and the government might choose to grant themquot Framers of the constitution had not intended to include Blacks as citizens whether slaves or free Denied liberty democracy American quotsense of mission to extend its liberty to anybodyquot Decision turned out to be major political miscalculation Overturned after Civil War by the 14th amendment to the US constitution quotAll persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they residequot But for 11 years 18571868 white racism was the law of the land thanks to the Dred Scott decision Conclusions about racism in America 0 Not all White Americans agreed with Jefferson or Taney about the social condition or legal status of blacks 0 Signi cant minority mostly Northerners who believed in racial equality many abolitionists Most Americans did not give any thought at all but when they did shared the conclusions of Black inferiority Slavery as an institution and racial ideas contradicted several components of developing American culture the American sense of mission to extend liberty the tension between democracy and individualism Were blacks Americans This question ultimately produced a cultural crisis a moral crisis The institution of slavery in America 0 One of enduring concerns in America race relations o For many reasons relations between whites and blacks during our period of study were organized in a very special way more than any other in uenced race relations and ideas about race in America 0 Most important institution of slavery Existed in many other places and many other times particularly on the basis of religion Special feature of American slavery based on race o If you were white you were not and could not be a slave If you were black you probably were a slave Race in almost every case indicated status tightly tied together Consequences have been enormous 0 American Slavery was different from slavery in other parts of the new world So remember this lecture is only about origins development consequences of slavery in colonial America and the US not other parts of the world Origins of American Slavery o Slavery did not exist in England 0 Institution of slavery was not imported Institution of slavery was created here 0 American colonists inherited racial prejudicesattitudes but not the institution of slavery no concept of slavery in English common law Developed in America and elsewhere in the British empire but not in the UK 0 At rst had no concept of slavery When the rst blacks were sold atJamestown it was generally assumed that they were just a sort of indentured servant only the vaguest idea that they might be held in perpetual slavery By 16605 however white English colonists were inventing the idea of slavery in their colonies de ning slavery in legal terms in order to preserve it 0 Some de nitions 0 Slave was chattel a form of property 0 One became a slave by being brought into the country or by being born as a slave prohibited after 1808 by united states constitution but continued illegally after that Child of a slave mother was a slave regardless of the father 0 No civil political legal rights powerless to control or protect their own welfare 0 By the 19th century slavery was sectional Existed almost entirely south of the MasonDixon line the southern border of Pennsylvania extended east and west Became the South39s quotpeculiar institutionquot America s most sectional issue Most white southerners came to see slavery as an economic institution a way of organizing the South39s labor supply 0 However typical white southerner did not own any slaves o 25 of the population owned slaves 0 Only 12 of those owned more than 20 slaves But those 12 owned more than half of all slaves 0 Only 11 slaveowners owned more than 500 slaves In other words most were owned by a small number of owners 0 Of the 8 billion southern Whites fewer than ten thousand owned more than 50 slaves Slaves were not distributed equally 0 Deep southern states had most and even in separate states those who had most slaves tended to collect in certain areas rich farming areas Slavery pro table institution for only a small number of white southerners not pro table for most 0 In other words not an economic bene t to most white southerners o In fact the competition of slaves for manual labor helped produce a signi cant poor white population 0 Yet many perhaps most white southerners aspired to own slaves Most also agreed that slavery was essential to maintaining the Southern economy 0 quotWho would do the work done by slaves if there were no slaves to do itquot Seemed to believe that slavery was popular for everybody 0 Another example of perception against reality Another way of looking at it social control 0 The institution of slavery was seen as a way to control an inferior race amp maintain white supremacy Prevent Blacks from quotbecoming a burden on societyquot 0 quotNow suppose they was free you see they39d all soon think of themselves as good as wequot 0 No legal segregation by race in fact slave society was integrated but rigidly unequal All whites considered to be equal in theory and considered to be superior to all blacks o How did this system work 5 principles necessary to maintain control Convince slave that quotwhat39s good for the master is good for the slavequot Make slave feel helpless and totally dependent on master 0 Make slave feel inferior Establish and maintain strict discipline over slave 0 Use punishment to keep slave in awe of owner39s power Despite disclaimers of kindness most slave owners accepted the fact that fear was the principle means of control in many cases the certainty of physical punishment not the severity that was essential Slaveowners sought to develop in their slaves a paralyzing fear of white men 0 How did the slaves react to this system A hard question to answer most accounts come from slave owners The Douglass narrative is so valuable because of this According to slaveowners most slaves were contented cheerful acquiescent because they were quottreated with kindnessquot the quotmoonlight and magnoliasquot school of history Historians discovered new evidence that this was false 0 Most slaves abhorred slavery and desired freedom 0 quotgive a slave a bad master and he aspires to a good master give him a good master and he wishes to become his own masterquot Douglass Runaway slaves numbered in the thousands each year most were caught and returned within a few days or a week 0 Most found other ways to express discontent o Slowing down doing less or careless work a notoriously inef cient system of labor 0 Pretending to be ill 0 Breaking the law Petty thefts Arson burning barns or outbuildings possibly even their slaveowner39s house Selfsabotage a record of slaves cutting off their hands to avoid being sold Some even utilized open violence 0 Most famous Nat Turner revolt Virginia August 1831 Turner 30yearold slave who lived on owner39s farm seemed a humble docile slave even had some slight education considered a quotgoodquot slave Had a religious experience and developed messianic complex chosen by God to deliver slaves from bondage Revolt lasted about 48 hours 70 slaves killed 60 whites Put down by Virginia militia 0 The bloodiest slave insurrection 0 Signi cance caused 0 Fear to spread throughout the South 0 South increased severity of its slave codes 0 Emancipation movement in south to collapse 0 Effects of slavery on whites On slave owners 0 Many northern critics said made slave owners quotunfit to live in a free societyquot became men who could not bear to have theirjudgements questioned used always to having their own way Developed a persecution complex always afraid that there would be a slave uprising a growing feeling that everybody was against them On nonslave owners Severely restricted economic and employment opportunities faced with low wages few skilled craftsmen had a corrupted vision of manual labor 0 But also gave them a sense of social superiority even the poorest white man was superior to the best black man On all southern whites Experienced violence as a daily way of life overt or covert 0 Some argue that the violence used to control the slaves developed into a predilection for violence in the whole southern society Next time the effects of slavery on slaves Won39t be on the test though
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