CRJ 260 Chapter 3 Book Notes
CRJ 260 Chapter 3 Book Notes CRJ 260
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bishop on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 260 at Lenoir-Rhyne University taught by Dr. Robert Stallings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Lenoir-Rhyne University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
CRJ 260 Chapter Three Book Notes Week 4 (9/13/169/15/16) Chapter 3: Understanding Crime and Victimization Reading p.85101 The Cause of Crime Criminologists: social scientists who use the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. study crime patterns in part to help agents of the CJS plan and construct programs to reduce crime Choice Theory p.86 Rational criminals weigh the potential benefits and consequences of their acts, choosing to commit a crime if they believe that doing so will yield immediate benefits without the threat of longterm risks. consider chances of arrest: 1. Based on past experiences 2. Excitement and social status 3. Perceived opportunities for easy gains If the rewards are great, the risk small, the excitement high= increased likelihood of committing the crime Deterrent effect: assumed ability of the threat of criminal sanctions to discourage crime before it occurs 1. Rational Crimes p.88 Whitecollar and organized crime Some violent criminals Robbers 2. Situational Crime Prevention p.89 Reducing the opportunities people have to commit crimes Defensible space: idea is that crime can be prevented or displaced Ronald Clarke main types of tactics: 1. Increase the effort needed to commit the crime 2. Increase the risks of committing the crime 3. Reduce the rewards of committing the crime 4. Induce shame or guilt 5. Reduce provocation 6. Remove excuses 3. General Deterrence p.9091 Enforces the fear of criminal penalties The harsher the punishment, more certain its application, the speedier the judgment= the more effective it will be 4. Specific Deterrence p.9192 Punishment severe enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat their criminal activity Experience will shape criminal choices *failures listed on p.92* *Rational Choice Strategy Summary on p.93* Trait Theories p.93 Crime was not so much by human choice but by inherited and uncontrollable biological and psychological traits: Intelligence, body build, personality, and biomedical makeup Cesare Lombroso (18361909) found that criminals possessed atavistic anomalies: o Primitive, animallike physical qualities o Asymmetric face o Excessive jaw o Eye defects o Large eyes o Receding forehead o Prominent cheekbones o Long arms o Twisted nose o Swollen lips th Discredited in the 20 century 1. Biochemical Factors p.94 Environmental contaminants: PCB Lead exposure may lead to cognitive and learning dysfunctions Mercury Food products & diet: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies Food additives Improper diet Hypoglycemia: a condition that occurs when blood glucose (sugar) falls below the levels necessary for normal brain functioning symptoms: irritability, anxiety, depression, crying spells, headaches, confusion Hormones: excessive levels of testosterone have been linked to high levels of aggression and violence children who have low levels of the stress hormone cortisol tend to be more violent and antisocial 2. Neurological Factors p.95 Neurotransmitters: chemical compounds that influence or activate brain functions ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) suspected cause of antisocial behavior may cause poor school performance, bullying, stubbornness, a lack of response to discipline 3. Genetic Factors p.9697 Relationship may be DIRECT: antisocial behavior is inherited genetic makeup of parents is passed on to children genetic abnormality is linked Relationship may be INDIRECT: genes are related to some personality or physical trait Psychological Theories p.98100 Psychodynamic Theory p.9899 Sigmund Freud (18561939) crime and mental illness a. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): psychological conditions whose symptoms include rebellious and aggressive behavior toward authority figures that seriously interferes with proper life functions frequent loss of temper, arguing with adults, defying adults, deliberate annoyance, being angry/resentful, swearing, having low selfesteem b. Conduct Disorder (CD): great difficulty following rules and behavior that is socially unacceptable viewed as severely antisocial involved in bullying, fighting, sexual assaults, behaving cruelly toward animals c. Clinical Depression: inability to concentrate, insomnia, loss of appetite, feelings of extreme sadness, guilt, helplessness, or hopelessness d. Alexithymia: prevents people from being aware of their feelings or being able to understand or talk about their thoughts and emotions Behavioral Theory p.99 behavior is learned through interaction with others behavior that is rewarded becomes habitual behavior that is punished becomes extinguished social learning theory: human behavior is learned through observation of human social interactions Cognitive Theory p.99100 the way people perceive and mentally represent the world in which they live in they perceive others to be more aggressive than they actually are when they attack, they feel as though they are defending themselves
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