New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CRJ 260 Chapter 3 Book Notes

by: Samantha Bishop

CRJ 260 Chapter 3 Book Notes CRJ 260

Marketplace > Lenoir-Rhyne University > Criminal Justice > CRJ 260 > CRJ 260 Chapter 3 Book Notes
Samantha Bishop

GPA 3.81

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the reading for Thursday 9/15/16 and go over pages 85-101 in depth.
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Dr. Robert Stallings
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Criminal Justice

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bishop on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 260 at Lenoir-Rhyne University taught by Dr. Robert Stallings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Lenoir-Rhyne University.


Reviews for CRJ 260 Chapter 3 Book Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/16
CRJ 260 Chapter Three Book Notes Week 4 (9/13/16­9/15/16) Chapter 3: Understanding Crime and Victimization Reading p.85­101 The Cause of Crime  Criminologists: social scientists who use the scientific method to study the nature,  extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. ­ study crime patterns in part to help agents of the CJS plan and construct  programs to reduce crime Choice Theory p.86  Rational criminals weigh the potential benefits and consequences of their acts, choosing  to commit a crime if they believe that doing so will yield immediate benefits without the  threat of long­term risks. ­ consider chances of arrest: 1. Based on past experiences 2. Excitement and social status 3. Perceived opportunities for easy gains  If the rewards are great, the risk small, the excitement high= increased likelihood of  committing the crime  Deterrent effect: assumed ability of the threat of criminal sanctions to discourage crime  before it occurs 1.  Rational Crimes p.88  White­collar and organized crime  Some violent criminals  Robbers 2. Situational Crime Prevention p.89  Reducing the opportunities people have to commit crimes  Defensible space: idea is that crime can be prevented or displaced Ronald Clarke main types of tactics: 1. Increase the effort needed to commit the crime 2. Increase the risks of committing the crime 3. Reduce the rewards of committing the crime 4. Induce shame or guilt 5. Reduce provocation 6. Remove excuses 3. General Deterrence p.90­91  Enforces the fear of criminal penalties  The harsher the punishment, more certain its application, the speedier the  judgment= the more effective it will be 4. Specific Deterrence p.91­92  Punishment severe enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat  their criminal activity  Experience will shape criminal choices *failures listed on p.92* *Rational Choice Strategy Summary on p.93* Trait Theories p.93  Crime was not so much by human choice but by inherited and uncontrollable  biological and psychological traits: Intelligence, body build, personality, and biomedical makeup  Cesare Lombroso (1836­1909) found that criminals possessed atavistic anomalies: o Primitive, animal­like physical qualities o Asymmetric face o Excessive jaw o Eye defects o Large eyes o Receding forehead o Prominent cheekbones o Long arms o Twisted nose o Swollen lips th  Discredited in the 20  century 1. Biochemical Factors p.94  Environmental contaminants: ­ PCB ­ Lead exposure may lead to cognitive and learning dysfunctions ­ Mercury  Food products & diet: ­ Vitamin and mineral deficiencies  ­ Food additives ­ Improper diet    Hypoglycemia: ­ a condition that occurs when blood glucose (sugar) falls below the levels  necessary for normal brain functioning  ­ symptoms: irritability, anxiety, depression, crying spells, headaches, confusion   Hormones: ­ excessive levels of testosterone have been linked to high levels of aggression  and violence ­ children who have low levels of the stress hormone cortisol tend to be more  violent and antisocial 2. Neurological Factors p.95  Neurotransmitters: chemical compounds that influence or activate brain functions  ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) ­ suspected cause of antisocial behavior ­ may cause poor school performance, bullying, stubbornness, a lack of response to discipline 3.  Genetic Factors p.96­97  Relationship may be DIRECT: ­ antisocial behavior is inherited ­ genetic makeup of parents is passed on to children ­ genetic abnormality is linked  Relationship may be INDIRECT:  ­ genes are related to some personality or physical trait Psychological Theories p.98­100  Psychodynamic Theory p.98­99 ­ Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) ­ crime and mental illness a. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): psychological conditions  whose symptoms include rebellious and aggressive behavior  toward authority figures that seriously interferes with proper life  functions ­ frequent loss of temper, arguing with adults, defying  adults, deliberate annoyance, being angry/resentful,  swearing, having low self­esteem  b.  Conduct Disorder (CD): great difficulty following rules and  behavior that is socially unacceptable ­ viewed as severely antisocial ­ involved in bullying, fighting, sexual assaults, behaving  cruelly toward animals c.  Clinical Depression: inability to concentrate, insomnia, loss of  appetite, feelings of extreme sadness, guilt, helplessness, or  hopelessness  d. Alexithymia: prevents people from being aware of their feelings or  being able to understand or talk about their thoughts and emotions  Behavioral Theory p.99 ­ behavior is learned through interaction with others ­ behavior that is rewarded becomes habitual ­ behavior that is punished becomes extinguished ­ social learning theory: human behavior is learned through observation of human social interactions  Cognitive Theory p.99­100 ­ the way people perceive and mentally represent the world in which they  live in ­ they perceive others to be more aggressive than they actually are ­ when they attack, they feel as though they are defending themselves


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.