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Chapter 1 and 2 STUDY GUIDE

by: Clare Flattery

Chapter 1 and 2 STUDY GUIDE CHM-110

Marketplace > Iowa Central Community College > Science > CHM-110 > Chapter 1 and 2 STUDY GUIDE
Clare Flattery
GPA 3.6

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Hey guys! Here are a few notes from the past few weeks for the upcoming Chemistry Exam!
Introduction to Chemistry
Krista Leigh
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry, significant figures, Orbitals, metric, system
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clare Flattery on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM-110 at Iowa Central Community College taught by Krista Leigh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Science at Iowa Central Community College.


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Date Created: 09/15/16
Chem Study Guide Chapters 1 & 2 1.1 Chemistry- the study of matter and energy and the changes they undergo Matter- anything that has mass and occupies volume (space). 1.2 States of Matter solid- particles packed tightly together. Has a definite shape and a definite volume. liquid- particles are more spaced out. Has an indefinite shape and a definite volume. gas- particles are spaced far apart. Has an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. Physical Properties- can be observed or measured with your senses without changing the identity of the matter. ex) melting point (mp), boiling point (bp), solubility, color and odor. Chemical Properties- the ability to undergo chemical change. Physical Change- the change of physical property without the identity of the matter [changes in state] [dissolving] Chemical Change- [chm rxn] old substance destroyed and changed into new substance. (Hard to change back) ex) Statue of Liberty, bread, rust. 1.3 Pure Substance- cannot be broken down by physical change. Mixture- 2 or more pure substances. Compound- made up of 2 or more elements (can be broken down into elements by a chemical change). Element- cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction. 1.4 Measurement- comprised of a number and a unit. [qualitative and quantitative]. Basic Metric Units Length - Meter - m Mass - Gram - g Volume - Liter - L Time - Second - s Metric Units Mega - M - Million - 1,000,000 Kilo - k - Thousand - 1,000 Deci - d - Tenth - 0.1 Centi - c - Hundredth - 0.01 Milli - m - Thousandth - 0.001 Micro - μ - Millionth - 0.000001 Nano - n - Billionth - 0.000000001 1.5 Significant Figures Rules 0. Significant Figures are inexact numbers only! 1. Any non-zero digit is significant 2. Captive zeros always count 3. Zeros to the left of the 1st non-zero never count. 4. Trailing zeros count IF a decimal is shown. Calculations with sig figs X/ / - report answers to the LEAST number of sig figs. +/- - now report to the least number of DECIMAL PLACES. 1.6 Scientific Method 1. Make observations 2. Propose an hypothesis 3. Design and perform an experiment to the test the hypothesis. 4. Analyze your data to determine whether to accept or reject the hypothesis. 5. If necessary, propose and test a new hypothesis. Chem Study Guide Chapters 1 & 2 1.7 Factor Label Method Any number (value) x 1 = the same value Any number / by equal value = 1 USE method even if you can simplify. ALWAYS double check your answer. MAKE sure you know use labels and in the correct spot. 1.9 Temperature- measurement of the intensity of heat (heat and temperature DIFFER!) Finding Kelvin ****K= C+273 1.10 Density- physical property “how heavy something is for its size.” Density = Mass/ Volume ****** Compound unit (g/mL) 2.1 Types of Elements 1. Metals Left of SSL Shiny solids at RT (except Hg) Good conductors of electricity and heat. High mp 2/3 of all elements 2. Non-metals Right of SSL Can be solid, liquid, or gas at RT Poor conductors of heat and electricity. Not shiny 3. Metalloids B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po Along the SSL 2.2 Name Charge Mass Location electron (e-) -1 charge aprx.0 orbitals proton (p+) +1 charge 1 amu nucleus neutron (n0) none 1 amu nucleus 2.3 Isotopes- same element different mass 1. Atomic number (z) = #p+ 2. Atomic mass (A) = #p+ + #n0 2.4 Period- row on the periodic table L-R. Elements in the same row are similar in size. Group- a column in the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar electronic and chemical properties. (Families) arranged at the top if p. table by number. There are 18 total. Transition Metal Elements- contained in the 10 short columns in the middle of the table number 1B- 8B. Inner Transition Elements- consist of the lanthanides and actinides, and they are not assigned group numbers. Alkaline Earth Metals- Group 2A: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra. They are shiny solids but less reactive than Alkali metals. Halogens- Group 7A: F, Cl, Br, I and At. Halogens contain two atoms joined together. Very reactive; combine with many other elements to form compounds. Noble Gases- Group 8A: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn. Especially stable elements (unlike most elements) so they rarely combine with other elements to form compounds. Chem Study Guide Chapters 1 & 2 2.5 Orbitals- areas of probability quantized. (Needs exact amount of energy to move). [Discrete E leves] n= principle E level (shell) # sub level s = 1 p = 3 d = 5 f = 7 Each orbital can have up to 2e-. s orbital- sphere shaped p orbital- dumbbell shaped d&f orbitals do not worry about shape as n increases; size increases


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