Week 2 Anatomy
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 221 at Towson University taught by Williams-Hogarth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
4.1 The four tissue types Tissues o Collections of specialized cells and cell products that carry out limited functions Histology o The study of tissues Epithelia tissues o Tissues that cover exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and champers, and forms glands Connective tissues o Fills internal spaces, provides structural support, transports materials within the body, and store energy Muscle tissue o Specialized tissue for contraction Neural tissue o Carries information in the form of electrical impulses 4.2 Epithelia tissue Cellularity o High density of cells in small areas Polarity o Is polar Apical surface o The part of the cell that faces the external environment Basal surface/ Basolateral surfaces o The part attached to the basement membrane/basal lamina Avascularity o They do not have blood vessels Regeneration o Functions of Epithelial Tissue Provide physical protection Control permeability Provide sensation Produce specialized secretions Glandular epithelium Specialization of Epithelial Cells Cilia Ciliated epithelium Intercellular connections Maintaining the integrity of the Epithelia Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Adhesion molecules that are transmembrane and exist inside the membrane to prevent entry into tissue Intercellular cement o Proteoglycans (High in sugar) o Hyaluronan (Includes hyaluronic acid) Glycosaminoglycan’s (GAGS) Can be broken down by hyrulodase (found in the head of sperm and the blastocyst) Cell junctions o Gap junctions Lateral portion of the cells Allow rapid communication and the diffusion of ions Held together by channel proteins (Connexons) o Tight junctions Present at apical ends of tissue Between two plasma membranes Prevents passage of fluids between cells and from the external to internal environment Connected through interlocking junctional proteins o Adhesion belt Underlying structure in a tight junction Attaches to the terminal web (Micro filaments inside cells) Uses cellular adhesion molecules Lumen: lining of a hollow organ Desmosome o Like a ligament to a cell, allows cells to bind to each other o Have CAMs, dense areas, and intercellular cement o Dense areas: Allows cellular adhesion molecules to be imbedded o Spot desmosomes Tie cells together Allow bending and twisting Lateral side o Hemidesmosomes Attach cells to the basement membrane Basal surface Clear layer Produce by the epithelia cells Serves as a barrier Dense Layer Produced by underlying connective tissue Thick fibers Strength Epithelial maintenance and repair Stem cells/Germinative cells o Exist to repair the epithelia o Near basement membrane 4.3 Cell shape and number of layers Simple Epithelium o Single layer of cells Stratified Epithelium o Several layers of cells Pseudostratified o Appears stratified but is not Squamous epithelium o Thin and flat o Simple Squamous epithelium Single layer of thin and flat cells Is useful for absorption and diffusion Allows for rapid diffusion and secretion Reduces friction Controls permeability Mesothelium Lines the bodies cavities Endothelium Lines heart and blood vessels o Stratified squamous epithelium Multiple layers of thin and flat cells Protects against attacks Keratin: Binding protein that adds strength and water resistance Keratinized: Has Keratin in it Non keratinized: Does not have Keratin in it Cuboidal Epithelium o Square shaped o Simple cuboidal epithelium Secretion absorption o Stratified cuboidal epithelia Multiple layers of square shaped Create a lot of secretions, sweat ducts and mammary ducts o Transitional Epithelium Tolerates cycles of stretching and recoiling and returns to its previous shape without damage Appearance changes as stretching occurs Columnar epithelial cells o Tall, slender rectangles o Simple Columnar epithelium Single layer Absorption and secretion o Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Single layer of tall slender cells that looks like more than one layer Cilla movement Typically, in the respiratory tract o Stratified Columnar epithelia Multiple layers of tall slender cells Protection Glandular epithelia o Endocrine glands (ductless glands) Release hormones Into interstitial fluid No ducts o Exocrine glands Produce secretions Onto epithelial surfaces Done through ducts Secretions Merocrine secretion Produced in the Golgi apparatus Released by vesicles through exocytosis Ex. Sweat glands Apocrine secretion Produced in the Golgi apparatus Released by vesicles by shedding cytoplasm Ex. Mammary glands Holocrine secretion Released by cell bursting, killing gland cells Gland cells replaced by stem cells Ex. Sebaceous glands o Oil producing glands on skin and hair o Types of secretion Serous glands Watery Mucous glands Secrete mucins Mixed exocrine glands Both serous and mucous o Unicellular glands Mucous (goblet) cells (only type) Scattered along epithelia Ex. Intestinal lining o Multicellular glands Structure of the duct Simple (Undivided) Compound (divided) Shape of secretory portion of the gland Tubular (tube shaped) Alveolar/ Acinar (blind pockets) Duct cells cannot secrete Relationship between ducts and glandular areas Branched o More than one secretory portion o More than one duct Unbranched o More than one secretory portion o Only one duct 4.5 Connective tissue o Characteristics Specialized cells The extracellular components of connective tissue Solid extracellular protein fibers Fluid extracellular ground substance o Clear, colorless, and viscous o Fills spaces between cells and slows pathogen movement o Contains lots of water o Formed mainly by glycosaminoglycan and glycoproteins o Slow the movement of pathogens Chicken soup analogy: o Chicken = Specialized cells o Broth= Ground substance o Noodles = Protein fibers o Extracellular matrix: Made by protein fibers and ground substance Dense connective tissue: Lots of protein fibers less ground substance o Dense regular Tendons: attach muscles to bones Ligaments: Connect bone to bone Aponeuroses: Attach in sheets to large flat muscles o Dense irregular Interwoven networks of collagen fibers Perichondrium: Around cartilage Periosteum: Around bones Capsules around organs Loose connective tissue: Less protein fibers more ground substance o What’s is its purpose. Establishes a structural framework for the body Transporting fluids and dissolved materials Protects delicate organs Supports, surrounds, and connects other types of tissues Storing energy reserves, particularly in the form of triglycerides Defending the body from invading microorganism Classification of connective tissues o Connective tissue proper Loose or dense Loose connective tissues o The “packing materials of the body Areolar Least specialized Open framework Viscous ground substance Elastic fibers Holds blood vessels and capillary beds Adipose White fat o Most common o Stores fat o Absorbs shocks o Slows heat loss Brown fat o More vascularized o The cells cannot divide they expand o Adipocytes do not divide in adults Function: To connect and protect Specialized cells in CTP Fibroblasts o Most abundant cell type o Secrete proteins of hyaluronan (cellular cement) Fibrocytes o Second most abundant o Maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper Adipocytes o Cells that store fat Mesenchymal cells(Embryonic) o Stem cells that respond to injury or infection Macrophages o Amoeba-like cells of the immune system “eat” pathogens and damaged cells Mast cells o Produce histamine and heparin Lymphocytes o Specialized immune cells in lymphatic system Microphages o Blood cells that respond to signals from macrophages and mast cells Melanocytes o Synthesize and store the brown pigment called melanin Extracellular Fibers (Loose connective tissue proper) Collagen fibers o Most common fibers o Long, straight, and unbranched o Strong and flexible o Resist force in one direction o Ex. Tendons and ligaments Reticular fibers/tissues o Smaller o Form networks called a stroma o Stabilizing functional cells (Parenchyma) o Ex. Sheaths around organs Elastic tissue (Made of elastic fibers) o Contain elastin o Branched and wavy o Return to original length after stretching Fluid connective tissues o Transport o Blood and Lymph o Water matrix of dissolved proteins o Formed elements of blood Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) White blood cells (leukocytes Platelets (function in blood clotting just pieces of cytoplasm) o Fluid components Extracellular Plasma Interstitial fluid Lymph o Collected from interstitial space o Monitored by immune system o Transported through lymphatic system o Returned to venous system o Transport systems Cardiovascular system Lymphatic system Supporting connective tissues o Structural strength o Cartilage Gel-type ground substance Shock absorption and protection Cartilage matrix o Proteoglycans from chondroitin sulfates o Ground substance proteins o Chondrocytes: Cartilage cells surrounded by lacunae (Chambers) o No blood vessels Produce antiangiogenics factor o Perichondrium Outer fibrous layer for strength Inner cellular layer for growth and maintenance Interstitial growth o From the tissue Appositional growth o From outside the tissue Types Hyaline cartilage o Stiff flexible support o Reduces friction between bones o Found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, nd trachea Elastic cartilage o Supportive but bends easily o Found in external ear and epiglottis Fibrocartilage o Limits movement o Prevents bone to bone contact o Pads knee joints o Found between pubic bones and intervertebral discs o Bone Calcified For weight support Resists shattering with flexible collagen fibers Osteocytes (bone cells) Arranged around central canals (blood vessels) within matrix Canaliculi: Channels that allow the cells to communicate Periosteum Covers bone surfaces o Embryonic connective Tissues Mesenchyme (Embryonic stem cells) divide to produce more cells, this is the only time that fat cells divide Mucous connective tissue (loose embryonic connective tissue) Mucous Membranes/ Mucosae o Physical barriers o Line or cover portions of the body o Epithelium supported by connective tissue o Types Mucous Line passageways with external connections Serves to make epithelial surfaces moist to reduce friction and facilitate absorption and excretion Serous Line cavities not open to the outside Thin but strong Fluid transudate to reduce friction Have a parietal portion covering the cavity Have a visceral portion (serosa) covering the organs Three you should know o Pleura Lines pleural cavities Covers lungs o Peritoneum Lines peritoneal cavity Covers abdominal organs o Pericardium Lines pericardial cavity Covers heart Cutaneous Skin Thick, waterproof, and dry Synovial Articulating joint cavities Produce synovial fluid (lubricant) Protect the ends of bones Lack true epithelium Fasciae/Fascia o The bodies framework of connective tissue o Layers and wrappings that support or surround organs o Three types Superficial fascia Between the skin and underlying organs Areolar tissue and adipose tissue Deep fascia Bound to capsules, tendons, and ligaments Dense connective tissue Strong and fibrous Subserous fascia Between serous membranes and deep fascia
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