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Week 2 Anatomy

by: Katlyn Burkitt

Week 2 Anatomy Biol 221

Katlyn Burkitt
GPA 3.2

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These notes cover everything from class for this past week, these lecture notes are also from chapter four.
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Class Notes
anatomy, towson, A&P1
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 221 at Towson University taught by Williams-Hogarth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
4.1 The four tissue types  Tissues o Collections of specialized cells and cell products that carry out limited functions  Histology o The study of tissues  Epithelia tissues o Tissues that cover exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and champers, and forms glands  Connective tissues o Fills internal spaces, provides structural support, transports materials within the body, and store energy  Muscle tissue o Specialized tissue for contraction  Neural tissue o Carries information in the form of electrical impulses 4.2 Epithelia tissue  Cellularity o High density of cells in small areas  Polarity o Is polar  Apical surface o The part of the cell that faces the external environment  Basal surface/ Basolateral surfaces o The part attached to the basement membrane/basal lamina  Avascularity o They do not have blood vessels  Regeneration o Functions of Epithelial Tissue  Provide physical protection  Control permeability  Provide sensation  Produce specialized secretions  Glandular epithelium Specialization of Epithelial Cells  Cilia  Ciliated epithelium  Intercellular connections Maintaining the integrity of the Epithelia  Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Adhesion molecules that are transmembrane and exist inside the membrane to prevent entry into tissue  Intercellular cement o Proteoglycans (High in sugar) o Hyaluronan (Includes hyaluronic acid)  Glycosaminoglycan’s (GAGS)  Can be broken down by hyrulodase (found in the head of sperm and the blastocyst)  Cell junctions o Gap junctions  Lateral portion of the cells  Allow rapid communication and the diffusion of ions  Held together by channel proteins (Connexons) o Tight junctions  Present at apical ends of tissue  Between two plasma membranes  Prevents passage of fluids between cells and from the external to internal environment  Connected through interlocking junctional proteins o Adhesion belt  Underlying structure in a tight junction  Attaches to the terminal web (Micro filaments inside cells)  Uses cellular adhesion molecules   Lumen: lining of a hollow organ  Desmosome o Like a ligament to a cell, allows cells to bind to each other o Have CAMs, dense areas, and intercellular cement o Dense areas: Allows cellular adhesion molecules to be imbedded o Spot desmosomes  Tie cells together  Allow bending and twisting  Lateral side o Hemidesmosomes  Attach cells to the basement membrane  Basal surface  Clear layer  Produce by the epithelia cells  Serves as a barrier  Dense Layer  Produced by underlying connective tissue  Thick fibers  Strength Epithelial maintenance and repair  Stem cells/Germinative cells o Exist to repair the epithelia o Near basement membrane 4.3 Cell shape and number of layers  Simple Epithelium o Single layer of cells  Stratified Epithelium o Several layers of cells  Pseudostratified o Appears stratified but is not  Squamous epithelium o Thin and flat o Simple Squamous epithelium  Single layer of thin and flat cells  Is useful for absorption and diffusion  Allows for rapid diffusion and secretion  Reduces friction  Controls permeability  Mesothelium  Lines the bodies cavities  Endothelium  Lines heart and blood vessels o Stratified squamous epithelium  Multiple layers of thin and flat cells  Protects against attacks  Keratin: Binding protein that adds strength and water resistance  Keratinized: Has Keratin in it  Non keratinized: Does not have Keratin in it  Cuboidal Epithelium o Square shaped o Simple cuboidal epithelium  Secretion absorption o Stratified cuboidal epithelia  Multiple layers of square shaped  Create a lot of secretions, sweat ducts and mammary ducts o Transitional Epithelium  Tolerates cycles of stretching and recoiling and returns to its previous shape without damage  Appearance changes as stretching occurs  Columnar epithelial cells o Tall, slender rectangles o Simple Columnar epithelium  Single layer  Absorption and secretion o Pseudostratified columnar epithelium  Single layer of tall slender cells that looks like more than one layer  Cilla movement  Typically, in the respiratory tract o Stratified Columnar epithelia  Multiple layers of tall slender cells  Protection  Glandular epithelia o Endocrine glands (ductless glands)  Release hormones  Into interstitial fluid  No ducts o Exocrine glands  Produce secretions  Onto epithelial surfaces  Done through ducts  Secretions  Merocrine secretion  Produced in the Golgi apparatus  Released by vesicles through exocytosis  Ex. Sweat glands  Apocrine secretion  Produced in the Golgi apparatus  Released by vesicles by shedding cytoplasm  Ex. Mammary glands  Holocrine secretion  Released by cell bursting, killing gland cells  Gland cells replaced by stem cells  Ex. Sebaceous glands o Oil producing glands on skin and hair o Types of secretion  Serous glands  Watery  Mucous glands  Secrete mucins  Mixed exocrine glands  Both serous and mucous o Unicellular glands  Mucous (goblet) cells (only type)  Scattered along epithelia  Ex. Intestinal lining o Multicellular glands  Structure of the duct  Simple (Undivided)  Compound (divided)  Shape of secretory portion of the gland  Tubular (tube shaped)  Alveolar/ Acinar (blind pockets)  Duct cells cannot secrete  Relationship between ducts and glandular areas  Branched o More than one secretory portion o More than one duct  Unbranched o More than one secretory portion o Only one duct 4.5 Connective tissue o Characteristics  Specialized cells  The extracellular components of connective tissue  Solid extracellular protein fibers  Fluid extracellular ground substance o Clear, colorless, and viscous o Fills spaces between cells and slows pathogen movement o Contains lots of water o Formed mainly by glycosaminoglycan and glycoproteins o Slow the movement of pathogens  Chicken soup analogy: o Chicken = Specialized cells o Broth= Ground substance o Noodles = Protein fibers o Extracellular matrix: Made by protein fibers and ground substance  Dense connective tissue: Lots of protein fibers less ground substance o Dense regular  Tendons: attach muscles to bones  Ligaments: Connect bone to bone  Aponeuroses: Attach in sheets to large flat muscles o Dense irregular  Interwoven networks of collagen fibers  Perichondrium: Around cartilage  Periosteum: Around bones  Capsules around organs  Loose connective tissue: Less protein fibers more ground substance o What’s is its purpose.  Establishes a structural framework for the body  Transporting fluids and dissolved materials  Protects delicate organs  Supports, surrounds, and connects other types of tissues  Storing energy reserves, particularly in the form of triglycerides  Defending the body from invading microorganism  Classification of connective tissues o Connective tissue proper  Loose or dense  Loose connective tissues o The “packing materials of the body  Areolar  Least specialized  Open framework  Viscous ground substance  Elastic fibers  Holds blood vessels and capillary beds  Adipose  White fat o Most common o Stores fat o Absorbs shocks o Slows heat loss  Brown fat o More vascularized o The cells cannot divide they expand o Adipocytes do not divide in adults  Function: To connect and protect  Specialized cells in CTP  Fibroblasts o Most abundant cell type o Secrete proteins of hyaluronan (cellular cement)  Fibrocytes o Second most abundant o Maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper  Adipocytes o Cells that store fat  Mesenchymal cells(Embryonic) o Stem cells that respond to injury or infection  Macrophages o Amoeba-like cells of the immune system “eat” pathogens and damaged cells  Mast cells o Produce histamine and heparin  Lymphocytes o Specialized immune cells in lymphatic system  Microphages o Blood cells that respond to signals from macrophages and mast cells  Melanocytes o Synthesize and store the brown pigment called melanin  Extracellular Fibers (Loose connective tissue proper)  Collagen fibers o Most common fibers o Long, straight, and unbranched o Strong and flexible o Resist force in one direction o Ex. Tendons and ligaments  Reticular fibers/tissues o Smaller o Form networks called a stroma o Stabilizing functional cells (Parenchyma) o Ex. Sheaths around organs  Elastic tissue (Made of elastic fibers) o Contain elastin o Branched and wavy o Return to original length after stretching  Fluid connective tissues o Transport o Blood and Lymph o Water matrix of dissolved proteins o Formed elements of blood  Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)  White blood cells (leukocytes  Platelets (function in blood clotting just pieces of cytoplasm) o Fluid components  Extracellular  Plasma  Interstitial fluid  Lymph o Collected from interstitial space o Monitored by immune system o Transported through lymphatic system o Returned to venous system o Transport systems  Cardiovascular system  Lymphatic system  Supporting connective tissues o Structural strength o Cartilage  Gel-type ground substance  Shock absorption and protection  Cartilage matrix o Proteoglycans from chondroitin sulfates o Ground substance proteins o Chondrocytes: Cartilage cells surrounded by lacunae (Chambers) o No blood vessels  Produce antiangiogenics factor o Perichondrium  Outer fibrous layer for strength  Inner cellular layer for growth and maintenance  Interstitial growth o From the tissue  Appositional growth o From outside the tissue  Types  Hyaline cartilage o Stiff flexible support o Reduces friction between bones o Found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, nd trachea  Elastic cartilage o Supportive but bends easily o Found in external ear and epiglottis  Fibrocartilage o Limits movement o Prevents bone to bone contact o Pads knee joints o Found between pubic bones and intervertebral discs o Bone  Calcified  For weight support  Resists shattering with flexible collagen fibers  Osteocytes (bone cells)  Arranged around central canals (blood vessels) within matrix  Canaliculi: Channels that allow the cells to communicate  Periosteum  Covers bone surfaces o Embryonic connective Tissues  Mesenchyme (Embryonic stem cells) divide to produce more cells, this is the only time that fat cells divide  Mucous connective tissue (loose embryonic connective tissue)  Mucous Membranes/ Mucosae o Physical barriers o Line or cover portions of the body o Epithelium supported by connective tissue o Types  Mucous  Line passageways with external connections  Serves to make epithelial surfaces moist to reduce friction and facilitate absorption and excretion  Serous  Line cavities not open to the outside  Thin but strong  Fluid transudate to reduce friction  Have a parietal portion covering the cavity  Have a visceral portion (serosa) covering the organs  Three you should know o Pleura  Lines pleural cavities  Covers lungs o Peritoneum  Lines peritoneal cavity  Covers abdominal organs o Pericardium  Lines pericardial cavity  Covers heart  Cutaneous  Skin  Thick, waterproof, and dry  Synovial  Articulating joint cavities  Produce synovial fluid (lubricant)  Protect the ends of bones  Lack true epithelium  Fasciae/Fascia o The bodies framework of connective tissue o Layers and wrappings that support or surround organs o Three types  Superficial fascia  Between the skin and underlying organs  Areolar tissue and adipose tissue  Deep fascia  Bound to capsules, tendons, and ligaments  Dense connective tissue  Strong and fibrous  Subserous fascia  Between serous membranes and deep fascia


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