RLST 105 Week two notes
RLST 105 Week two notes RLST 105
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RLST 105 at Towson University taught by Carl Yamamoto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Study of Religion in Religious Studies at Towson University.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/16/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Hinduism CLASSICAL PERIOD The Gupta empire was in charge at this time, and they gave money and support to Hindus prosperity and social stability arts, architecture, literature, and philosophy developed New things of the period: 1) New texts a) epics: long narrative poems containing a warrior hero and a villain Mahabarata: story of the Barata family, ancestoral, 100,000 couplets(long story), war between the Kauravas and Pandavas, found in the Bhagavad Gita Ramayana: story of Rama, war between Rama and Ravana… Sita(Rama’s wife) is abducted by Ravana and the god Hanuman and his army of monkeys helped Rama get her back b) Legalethical texts: a person’s duties Laws of Manu: the “three fours”, the four purposes of life, the four stages of life, and the four classes 2) New singledeity secs (worship of only one god) a. The goddess Devi: originally just a partner of a male god, but later she was worshipped independently she is both benign and terrifying Durga: the terrifying version of Devi b. Shiva: “creator and destroyer” followers were called “Shaivas” or Shaivites c. Vishnu: incarnations are Rama and Krishna followers are called “Vaishnavites” or “Vaishnavas” the Vaishnavites were given partronage and money by the Gupta Empire 3) New popular movements a. Bhakti: devotion, relies on the energy of a group bhakti poetsaints wrote devotional songs that were targeted at single deities, written in a common language, created a personal religious feeling. GOD=LOVER mentality MUSLIM PERIOD ruled by the Mughal Empire Emperor Akbar: 3 Mughal Emperor, he had religious tolerance and wanted to start a religion that combined Islam and Hinduism (syncretism) MODERN PERIOD Britain had control of most of India period of modernization and “western enlightenment” British law and educated were introduced to India Some Indians embraced Westernization, some rejected it Also, Hinduism came to the West…philosophy, yoga, etc. Philosophy of Hinduism 1) The Upanishads a. SamsaraKarma cosmology cosmology: study of the NATURE of the universe cosmogony: study of the ORIGIN/BIRTH of the universe samsara: cyclic existence, you are reincarnated karma: the actions that you do that determine what class you will be born into your next life moksha: getting out of samsara, liberation, the way to achieve this is through knowledge b. Internalization of the sacrifice Hindus valued yoga and meditation “tapas”: “inner heat,” breathing practices that actually raise the body temperature oblation=breath c. Atman=Brahman The Brahman is the eternal, ultimate reality that is the purpose of life all beings came from the Brahman, and want to rejoin the Brahman by achieving individual liberation 2) Classical Hinduism healing social and religious divisions conflicts faced by classical Hinduism: a) Conflicting views of the absolute: what is the nature of Brahman? The views of the householders and the renouncers were put together, and the conclusion was the Brahman is both an “it” and a “him/her” 2 natures of Brahman: 1. Brahman without qualities: “nirguna” 2. Brahman with qualities: “saguna”: more single deity secs were formed because people wanted a single god to worship b) Conflicting views about how to achieve moksha (liberation) householders: did not want to waver from their social duties renouncers: wanted to leave society and seek knowledge they came up with the idea that there is more than one way to moksha: there are three paths to moksha: 1) Path of Knowledge (jnanamarga): the renouncer path of meditation and yoga, they believed that Brahman=atman 2) Path of Action (karmamarga): the householder view of social duties (dharma), selfless action, and action without desire 3) Path of Devotion (bhaktimarga): worshipping and devoting yourself to a god, having love for a god… this was the most popular path in the working class Practice of Hinduism 1) Brahmanical rituals a. Sacrifice oblations and offering Housewarming ceremony: a ceremony involving sacrifice that celebrates the marriage of a man and a woman b. Rites of passage (samskaras) ritual of impregnation: a ritual to guarantee that a woman becomes pregnant name giving ritual: giving a kid a name initiation: a celebration of when a male turns from a boy into a man, usually a highcaste boy, this happens at 812 years old marriage ritual: weddings were arranged, the groom visits the home of his future bride and the ritual includes fire (oblations and circling the fire) funeral ritual: cremation of the body of the deceased 2) Classical Hindu rituals a) Puja("honoring): honoring a particular god, the central piece of the ritual is a figure of the god done at home or at a temple the god is treated like an honored guest offerings are made in exchange for blessings, reciprocal relationship icon(figure): contains the prescence of the god consecration: when a new idol is invited into a Hindu home at the temple: there are sacred verses read, there is bathing and dressing of the icon, and offerings of food, flowers, incense, and music darshama: seeing