New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

cj 1001 week 4 notes

by: Joshua Weintraub

cj 1001 week 4 notes CJ 1001

Marketplace > The University of Cincinnati > CJ 1001 > cj 1001 week 4 notes
Joshua Weintraub
GPA 3.35
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Intro to Criminal Justice

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Intro to Criminal Justice notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

training, hiring process notes, different types of crime
Intro to Criminal Justice
Brian Pack
Class Notes




Popular in Intro to Criminal Justice

Popular in Department

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshua Weintraub on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Brian Pack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


Reviews for cj 1001 week 4 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
8/24/16 Criminal Justice Notes Week One:  Locard’s Principle­any time a perpetrator of a crime goes to a crime scene they leave a piece of  themselves at the crime scene and take a piece of the crime scene with them.  This happens every  single time  Crime­ Violating a law, something immoral,   Definition of crime­ an act that violates a law and is punishable by criminal sanctions­ has to both violate the law and be punishable by criminal sanctions in order to be considered a crime.  Cannot  be a crime with one and not the other concept.    Consensus Model­ as a society forms, members will agree on shared norms/values   Conflict Model­ elite of society impose their values on others through control of law   Texting and driving­Consensus   Murder­Consensus   Legalization of Marijuana­Conflict   DUI­ Consensus, either way  Abortion­ Conflict   Rape­ Consensus   Two different models given do not account for all the laws, truth usually lies in between not one  side is always right   Integrated definition of crime:  1. Punishable by law as determined by a majority (Consensus) or a powerful minority  (Conflict)  2. Considered an offense against society­ prosecuted by public officials  3. Punishable by sanctions which bring about the loss of personal freedom or life   Deviance­ violation of social norms or a moral code   As level of deviance increases it becomes more likely that the act is illegal  Under our federalist system­ powers are shared by the federal and state governments   CJ system has 3 major sub systems:   1 .      Law Enforcement   2 .      Courts   3 .      Corrections   Each of the 3 exist both on state and federal levels   Formal CJ Process = “routine operations” which move a case/defendant from beginning to end in a smooth and orderly fashion   Informal CJ Process = resulting from system actor with Discretion, a system that does not  operate within rigid confines of law   Discretion must be exercised with ethical decision making and critical thinking skills  8/26/16:  Crime Control Model: Most important function of the CJ process is to punish and repress   criminal conduct.  Should be quick and efficient with   few restrictions  on law enforcement.    Due Process Model: Focus on protecting the rights of the accused by legal restraints on police,   courts, and corrections.  Make it more difficult to prove guilt  it is more desirable that 99 guilty  people go free than 1 innocent is wrongly convicted       Pros of Crime control:  1.    Catch criminals  2.    Deterrence  3.    Would have evidence and be able to convict       Cons of Crime control:   1 .      Catches innocent people   2 .      Afraid of illegal searches   3 .      Corruption       Pros of Due Process:  1.    Innocent people are safe  2.    Less fear of government  3.    Benefits defense attorneys­ prosecutors have to do most of work      Cons of Due Process:   1 .      No/low deterrent  2.    Slow process   Guns, gangs and illegal drugs­12% of homicides in cities related to these­“non­crime related”   Violent crime and property crime has decreased despite this.    American population=318,940,000 people 2.3 million people in prisons we are most prison  happy country in the world   $20,000­$40,000 per inmate per year, $900,000 at Guantanamo bay   Iatrogenic­Solution that makes the problem worse  Week 2 in class notes: 8/29/2016  Types of Crime:   Violent/ Persons Dominate our ideas on crime    Property  most common type of crime   Public Order contrary to public morals (Victimless?)   White­Collar does cause exceed that of “street” (violent and property) crimes?   Organized Crime illegal organization for illegal purpose    High­Tech Crimes  facilitated through computers or technology  ______________________________________________________________________________________  Uniform crime report­ data on “offenses known to the police” provided voluntarily by 18,300  agencies   Data is expressed as a rate (crimes per 100,000 people, and percentage changes)   Crimes reported to police (Part 1) and arrests (part 2) are included   In 2010 536 Murders in NYC, 223 Murders in Baltimore­ divide by population  8,336,002  people in New York, 639, 929 in Baltimore.  Multiply it by 100,000 rate in New York =  6.4/100,000  rate in Baltimore 34.8/100,000 people   Why would someone not report a crime not worth time, they’re already committing a crime  while they’re victimized, afraid of bodily harm in return  Murder is the highest report rate for all crime can’t make a body disappear, can but its a lot of  trouble  National Crime Victimization Survey: conducted annually by the U.S Bureau of the Census   92,000 households provide their crime experiences   Data made available through the Department of Justice (Bureau of Justice statistics)     Self Reported Surveys (Offenders): study participants are asked about criminal activity they have  been involved in, very useful for drug use and abuse research, often used in institutional setting  (captive audience)   8/31/16  Crime Trends­ 1990s to now:   Crime in all categories has declined.  The reasons are highly debated and possibilities include:  1. Rising incarceration  2. Changes in drug use patterns  3. Better policing  4. Economic conditions  5. Aging population  Causality in Social Science Research: 1.    Demonstrate relationship between variables (Correlation) 2.    Determine the time sequence (cause must precede effect) 3.    Variables must be “non­Spurious” (exclude rival causal factors)       Criminology= The scientific study of crime and the causes of criminal behavior  If we can identify what causes crime, we can implement policies to prevent it   Theory Test Theory Policies  Deviant  Normal Serial Murder  Murder Theft Speeding  Rational Choice Theory:  People commit crime because they choose to (rationally) based on cost­benefit analysis   To prevent crime, we need to make the cost outweigh any potential benefit   Punishment should be swift certain and adequately severe  Trait Theories:  Attributes in individuals may incline them towards crime  Biological traits:  1. Elevated levels of testosterone linked to higher levels of violence  2. Low levels of serotonin and high levels of norepinephrine are correlated with  aggression   Psychological Traits: 1. Psychopaths, Sociopaths, Antisocial Personality Disorder  2. Low Self Control  Social Structure Theories:   Crime is caused by a feature of society and thus the criminal is not individually different from the  non­criminal   Social Disorganization Theory (Chicago school)  Strain Theory Differential access to shared goals= strain  Conflict Theories  Social Process Theories:   Learning Theory  The practical and psychological elements of crime are learned.   Additionally, exposure to high levels of media violence may erode our national aversion to it  Routine activities Crime requires presence of a motivated offender, suitable target, and absence  of a capable guardian (victim/offender interaction)    Criminology Week 3 in class notes  Josh Weintraub 9/7/16 Sources of ‘codified” laws:   Constitutional law U.S. and States Bill of rights  Statutory applies to passing jurisdiction supremacy clause   Administrative EPA, FDA, OHSA   Case­use of precedent, courts interpret laws  Purpose of Criminal Law:  Protect and Punish (Legal function) protect individuals and society collectively from harm  Maintain and Teach (Social function) reflect and teach the “values and norms of society” Two Classifications of Law: Criminal law:  Public wrongdoing (crime)  Prosecutor (public)   Guilt of Defendant   Fines/imprisonment   Proof beyond a reasonable doubt   Murder   Assault  Civil Law:   Private wrong (tort)  Plaintiff (citizen/group)   Liability of Defendant   Monetary Damages   Preponderance of the evidence   Wrongful death  Unnecessary force  Severity of Crimes:   Felony    Most serious, punishable by confinement exceeding a year (and even death) in  state/federal prison    Misdemeanor    Punishable by fines and commitment up to a year in local jail    Infraction    Punishable by fines only   Prison= state level more extreme crime  Jail=city, lower level crimes  Mala What? (Latin):         Mala in S  an act that would be considered wrong even without a law prohibitin high  consensus, high deviance level      Mala Prohibita   An act that is only considered wrong because of a law prohibii lower  consensus, lower deviance level The Elements of a Crime:      Actus Reus= Prohibited act ( or omission)      Mens Rea= intent or “guilty mind” (except in strict liability offenses)      Attendant Circumstances= facts surrounding a criminal event that must be proved to  convict a defendant  Legal Defenses:  Infancy= a child is too young to appreciate the consequences of their actions  Insanity= as a result of mental disease or defect the accused cannot understand the  consequences of their act, does not know it was wrong, or cannot control their actions   1% of total criminal trials use insanity defense  25% of the 1% are successful    Involuntary Intoxication= A person is physically forced to ingest or covertly given a substance  that renders them incapable of understanding that their actions are wrong   Voluntary Intoxication=  Generally not a good defense because defendant chose to become  intoxicated    Duress=   act committed under unlawful pressure to do so   no mens rea   Self­Defense=  you may use reasonable force to defend yourself against harm   Entrapment=  occurs when law enforcement encourages a crime that would not have otherwise  been committed  In­Class Notes Week 4: 9/12/16 Due Process (5   , 14    Amendments): No person shall be deprived of life liberty, or property without due process of law The greater the deprivation, the more “due process” someone is entitled to receive US supreme court decides when due process has been violated        “Profession”     Person paid to undertake tasks for a fee (1)  A vocation requiring knowledge of   some department of learning or science( 2)     Professional    well­educated, higher salaries, high   autonomy, creative and intellectually challenging work, trusted  code of conduct Responsibilities of the Police:   To enforce laws  To provide Services  To prevent crime  To preserve the Peace  Police History:  Colonial “night watch system” first used citizen volunteers to maintain order in small cities at  night   1829 (England) Metropolitan Police Act introduced by Home Security Sir Robert Peel first  “modern” organized/ professional police comes to Boston then NYC  Political Era (1840­1930):  Police officers appointed based on relationships to municipal level politicians   Low pay, and very little training leads to corruption and poor service delivery   Police responsible to provide social service to citizens work in soup kitchen   Corruption Reform Era (1930­1980):  Centralization of police forces, control goes to chief and away from politicians   Crime control becomes focus, randomized patrol and rapid response to calls for service use of  vehicles   Separation of  “experts” (police) from citizens is viewed as the largest drawback of this era  Rapid Response  Community Era (1980­2000):  Focus returns to providing broader range of social services while controlling crime  Partnership between police and community   Rapid response does not prevent crime  Problem solving, foot patrolling, decentralized command   Partnership  Criticism of community police being “soft on crime”  over­relying on police to solve society’s  problems    Basic Requirements to be a Law Enforcement Officer Today:  U.S. Citizenships  Not have a felony conviction  Have or be eligible to have a driver’s license in appropriate jurisdiction  21­years old   Any applicable physical characteristics   High school or equivalent education  9/14/16: The Hiring Process:  Application   Testing (written/oral)  Physical test (Physical)  Polygraph Examination/ Background Investigation  Conditional decision (oral interview)  Physical examinationdoctor or health   Psychological Evaluation IQ/ Personality  Final offer of employment  Education:  82% of departments required high school, 9% associates degree, 1% bachelor’s   Standards no longer set police officer candidate above societal average for education   Detractors argue police skills are not learned in a classroom, challenges of filling a position with  high standards  Training (Probationary): 1. Academy:  Stress Academy (Militaristic)  Non­stress academy  largely college like  2. Field Training:  Experience based training with direct supervision from a senior officer 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.