History 1311, 002 Monday 9.12.16 Notes
History 1311, 002 Monday 9.12.16 Notes 1311-002
Popular in history
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Francisco Soto on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1311-002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Rufki Salihi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see history in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
Reviews for History 1311, 002 Monday 9.12.16 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/16/16
History Notes from Monday (9.12.16) Mercantilist system *England attempted to regulate its economy to ensure wealth and national power *Commerce not territorial plunder was the foundation of the English empire *The navigation acts required colonial products to be transported in English ships and sold at English ports *In 1664 during an Anglo Dutch war new Netherlands was surrendered by the Dutch without fight in order to retain their holdings in Africa Asia and South America *The terms of Dutch surrender guaranteed some freedoms liberties but reversed others especially blacks. *The duke of York governed New York and by 1700 nearly 2 million acres of land were owned bye only five New York families *Carolina was an offshoot of Barbados and, as such, a slave colony from the start; yet agriculture was not initially central to the economy. *Early settlers sought Carolinaarea Indians as allies and encouraged them to attack and capture Florida Indians as slaves. *From 1670 until 1720, Carolina engaged in a slave trade that sold captured Indians to other mainland colonies and to the West Indies. *The fundamental constitutions of Carolina envisioned a feudal society, but it was not established as such. The colonial government did allow for religious toleration, and elected assembly, and a generous headright system. *The economy grew slowly until planters discovered rice, which would make them the wealthiest elite in English North America *Carolina was established as a barrier to Spanish expansion north of Florida. Quakers *Pennsylvania was the last seventieth century colony to be established and was given to proprietor Willian Penn. *A Quaker, Penn envisioned a colony of peaceful harmony between colonists and Indians and a haven for spiritual freedom. *Quakers believed in liberty was universal entitlement. *Liberty extended to women, blacks, and Indians. *Religious freedom was a fundamental principle. *Quakers upheld a strict moral code. Origins of slavery *The spread of tobacco led settlers to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured servants. *In the seventeenth century, the concepts of race and racism had not fully developed. *Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices. *By 1600 huge sugar plantations worked by slaves from Africa were well established in Brazil and in the west. *Prior to 1600 Indians and white indentured servants had done the labor. *Sugar was the first new world crop to be mass marketed to Europe. *Slavery and the law *On paper slaves in Spain's American empire had more legal rights when compared with slaves in the English American empires. *The line between slavery and freedom was more permeable in the seventeenth century than it would become later. *Some free blacks were allowed to sue and testify in court. *Anthony Johnson arrived as a slave but gained his freedom and then eventually owned slaves and several hundred acres of land. The rise of Chesapeake slavery *In the 1660s the laws of Virginia and Maryland explicitly referred to slavery. *A Virginia law of 1662 provided that in the case of a child born to one free parent and one slave parent, the status of the offspring followed that of the mother. *From 1667 the Virginia House of Burgesses decreed that conversion to Christianity did not release a slave form bondage. *By 1680 the black population was small but notions of racial difference were well entrenched in the law *No mixed race class existed as the law treated everybody with African American ancestry as black Bacon's rebellion *Virginia’s government ran a corrupt regime under Governor Berkeley who maintained peaceful relations with the Indians *Good free land was scarce for freed indentured servants and taxes of tobacco were rising as the prices were falling *Nathaniel bacon was a elite planter which was related to the governor as a family member *He wanted to remove all Indians lower taxes and an end to rule guarantees *His campaign gained support from small farmers who could not profit much with their small lands, indentured servants, landless men, and even some Africans. 9.14.16 Wednesday Life in the English Colonies *The glorious revolution in 1688 established parliamentary supremacy and secured the protestant secession to the throne. *Rather than risk a catholic succession through James II, a group of English aristocrats invited the Dutch Protestant William of Orange to assume the throne. *The overthrow of James II entrenched the notion that liberty was the brightening of all enlighten *Parliament issued a Bill of Rights such as trial jury *Parliament adopted the Toleration act 1690 which allowed protestant Dissenters to worship freely although only Anglicans could hold public office. *Witch trials occurred. Women were executed based on superstitions Diversity *In the Eighteenth century African and nonEnglish European arrivals skyrocketed. *As England´s economy improved, large –scale migration was draining labor from the mother country. *Efforts began to stop emigration. *London believed colonial development bolstered the nation’s power and wealth. *Fifty thousand convicts were sent to the Chesapeake to work in tobacco fields. Germans The German migration *Germans 110000 in all formed the largest group of newcomers from the European continent *Germans tended to travel in entire families. *Migration greatly enhanced the ethnic and religious diversity in Britain´s colonies. *Most colonies did not adhere to separation of church and state. *Taxes were levied to pay for ministers. *Catholics and Jews could not vote nor hold office in most colonies. *Jews, however, were able to escape the rigid religious restrictions of Germanspeaking parts of Europe. *Other liberties also attracted settlers. *Availability of land *Lack of military draft. *Absence of restrains on economic opportunity. *Indian communities were well integrated into the British imperial system. *Traders, British officials, and farmers all viewed Indians differently. *The walking purchase of 1737 used decent to gain more land from Pennsylvania Indians. Consumer Revolution *Great Britain eclipsed the Dutch in the eighteenth century as leader in trade. *Colonial products like coffee and tea. *Manufactured goods such as linen, metal ware, pins, ribbons, glassware, ceramics, and clothing. Colonial Cities *Spanish colonial cities such as Mexico City were much more populated than British colonies. *Cities served mainly as gathering places for agricultural goods and for imported items that were distributed. Colonial Artisans *The city was home to a large population of artisans. *Myer Myers was a Jewish silversmith from NY, whose career reflected the opportunities open to men of diverse backgrounds in colonial cities. *Despite the influx of British goods, American craftsmen benefited from the expanding consumer market. *Trade unified the British Empire and connected I to other parts. The colonial Elite *Expanding trade created merchants to be an upper class. *South planters became wealthy. *America had no titled aristocracy. *1770 Virginian upper classes inherited their wealth. Friday 9/16/16 Atlantic Slavery A series of triangular trade routes crisscrossed the Atlantic. Colonial merchants profited from the slave trade, even in areas where slavery was a minor institution. Slavery became connected with the color black, and liberty with the color white. Africa and the slave trade With the expedition of the king or Benin, most African rulers participated in the slave trade, gaining guns and textiles in exchange for their slaves. The slave trade was concentrated in western Africa greatly disrupting its society and economy. The middle passage The middle passage was the voyage slaves took across the Atlantic from Africa. Slaves were crammed abroad ships for maximum profit. Slave traders took the vast majority of slaves to Brazil and to the West Indies, where death rates were high. Three distinct slave system were well entrenched in Britain’s mainland colonies. *Chesapeake *South Carolina and Georgia. *Non planification societies of New England and middle colonies Many slaves died by sickness, intoxication, and by being choked with the weight of other on top of them. After 1680, labor switched from indentured servitude to slavery. As Virginians moved westward so did slavery. The center of slavery moved from the Tidewater region to the Piedmont. Slavery transformed the Chesapeake society into an elaborate hierarchy of degrees of freedom: Large planters Yeomen farmers Indentured servants farmers Slaves Chesapeake With the consolidation of a slave society, planters enacted laws to protect their power over the slaves. Race became more important as a line of social division, and free blacks lost rights as free and whites became identical. The rice kingdom South Carolina and Georgian slavery rested on rice. Rice and Indigo required many slaves to cultivate. Slaves had daily jobs, times, and very shorts breaks to rest. Georgia Georgia was established by a group of philanthropists led by James Oglethorpe in 1733. Oglethorpe had banned liquor and slaves, but the settlers demanded their right of self government and repealed the bans by the early 1750s In 1751, Georgia became a royal colony. Slavery in the North. Since the economy of New England and the Middle Colonies were based on small farms, making slaves less important. Lass were less harsh for slaves than in the south because they didn’t saw a threat. Slave culture and slave resistance The common link among Africans in America was not kinship language, or even race, but slavery itself. For most of the eighteenth century, the majority of American slaves were African by birth. The experience of transit of traditional African religions to Christianity was difficult for the slaves. West African religions were a great variety, but shared a belief of spiritual forces in nature. When slaves turned Christians many melded Christianity with their past religion. In South Carolina and Georgia two very different black societies emerged. Communities on rice plantations retained significant African cultural elements. Had little contact with whites. Enjoyed much more autonomy when compared to slaves from other economies. Slaves in the cities of Charleston and Savannah is assimilated more quickly into EuroAmerican culture. Resistance slavery A common thread among African Americans was the experience of slavery and desire of freedom. Many plantation slaves in South Carolina and Georgia ran away to Florida or to cities. The first eighteenth century slave uprising occurred in New York City in 1712. Uprising also occurred In French Louisiana and on various Caribbean islands. The crisis of 17391741 The Stono Rebellion of 1739 in South Carolina led to the tightening of the slave code. A panic in 1741 swept New York City after a series of fires broke out a huge rebellion.