WEEK 5 lecture notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Cook on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Brysch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
HEALTH/MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY Sub-discipline of human geography. HEALTH: closely related to location and environment. - Outbreak of particular disease occurs source and diffusion (patterns studied) INFECTIOUS DISEASE VECTORED: spread by vector. Ex: mosquito, tick, fleas. NON-VECTORED: transmission from person to person. Ex: HIV/AIDS, Influenza, Common Cold. 65% of diseases are infectious. CHRONIC DISEASES: cannot be spread by people. Ex: heart disease, cancer. - Causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Mainly the middle and older age populations. - Leading cause of death in the US. Specifically, cancer, strokes, heart disease, and accidents. - Chronic diseases are on the rise in the developing world. EPIDEMIC: disease outbreak occurring at the local/regional level. Largely remains geographically confined. PANDEMIC: epidemic occurring worldwide or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and affecting a large number of people. AFRICA Africa is a good medical lab to look at. Since the 70s, about 40 new diseases have been discovered, believed to have originated in Africa. Equilateral climates have intensified. Higher temperatures- higher humidity. Rainforest has expanded increasing animal life. Lakes and swamps. 90% of malaria deaths are in Africa. HIV/AIDth likely began in central- western Africa in the second half of the 20 century. Began with a non-human source. HIV/AIDS and MALARIA IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Geographic location. Socioeconomically. HIV/AIDS: impacted immune system. Decrease in protection offered by antimalarial treatment. MALARIA: causes anemia. Risk factor for HIV infection where accurate blood screening has not been done. Social and economic consequences. Strikes the working age population which brings down the nation’s GDP. Women are the most affected (61%). Children are orphaned. >11 million children under the age of 15 have lost one or both of their parents. DISTRIBUTION Social and cultural aspects - Social stigma. - Patriarchal society Political - Government leadership has varied Economics - Medication, expenses, difficult to provide - Wealth YELLOW FEVER - Been prevalent since December of 2015. - Vaccines exist but are very hard to produce. - Largest outbreak was more than 3800 cases and 360 deaths. - Had not made it into Asia until 2016 when infected man flew into Beijing feeling sick and tested positive. Asians are the most popular immigrants in Africa now because of economics and work opportunities. - Not everyone abides by the rules and regulations of being vaccinated. DISEASE PREVALENCE Education Access to medical care Global problem Preventative measures (wearing condoms, being circumcised, getting tested) Scholars admit that if it was a western disease, there would have already been extreme measures taken to treat and cure the many diseases. Africa Matters; - “Global Village” - social stability - disease - human capital - resource bonanza (30% of earth’s remaining mineral deposits and largest reserves of precious metals) CHAPTER 5 Southwest Asia and North Africa - “middle east” - “MENA” - “dry world” - “Arab world” - “Islamic world” - bounded on all sides - use the center of continents as a reference point “DRY WORLD” classified as a desert (10 inches or less precipitation) Mediterranean climate Steppe: transition zones (Ex. Sahel) SAHEL Means border or margin Steppe in North Africa More precipitation than the desert Keeps livestock and more vegetation Animal Husbandry: - Pastoralism: herding animals from place to place. Most common type of agriculture in this region. Dry land with variable precipitation Problems with the expansion of the desert and overgrazing Population is suffering due to warmer climates El Nino- severe warmth. Too much or too little precipitation in some areas NILE RIVER water is a very precious resource 85% of the Nile originates in Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan; these countries greatly rely on the Nile for resources Egypt is worried that the water flow could be impacted (they’re the furthest downstream) TIGRIS AND EUPRATES Located in Iraq Begins in Turkey Euphrates is ½ of Syria’s water supply Turkey initiated a dam system to spur development, hold in reservoirs for their own fishing, and power AGRICULTURE Hunting and gathering: o Hunting wild animals, fishing, and gathering plants to eat o Seasonal movement and fishing Agricultural revolution about 10,000 years ago in the “fertile crescent” – Mesopotamia. Hearth of domestication HEARTH: area from which an original idea develops and then diffuses to other areas. -Wheat, rye, pulses(peas) Agricultural surplus means there is more people and a development of city-states. City size depended on the HINTERLAND (limited distance that food could be transported) As hinterland was expanded and cities grew, wars began to break out. *MENA was one of world’s most urbanized areas; oil industry, provides many people. “ISLAMIC WORLD” Cradle of 3 Major Faiths Influence political and social norms. Source of conflict JUDAISM o Oldest of the three major religion o Abraham was the patriarch of the Jews o Sacred Text: Torah, Hebrew Bible o Ethnic Religion: belief system largely confined to members of a single ethnic or cultural group, usually born into it, don’t actively try to convert people, confined to one general place. o Diaspora: displaced from earth o Relocation diffusion. Jews went from their homelands Europe America CHRISTIANITY o 2,000 years ago o teaching of Jesus Christ o Split from Judaism o Holy Trinity, resurrection o The Bible (Old and New Testament) o Universalizing Religion: actively seeking to convert people, person to person ISLAM o 7 century (youngest of the three religions) o founded by Muhammad, Alah is God o “submission to the will of God” o Sacred Text: Qur’am o Universalizing religion o Dominant in MENA and especially Arabian Peninsula o Relocated to Southeast Asia due to trade o About 1.57 billion people follow Islam o 2 ndlargest religion in the world, but fastest growing o 5 PILLARS OF ISLAM 1) Shahadah; Faith 2) Salah; praying 5x a day 3) Sawn; fasting from sunrise to sunset 4) Zakah; Alamsgiving 5) Hajj; pilgrimage to Mecca o Schism when the religion separates o SHI’A: Muhammad was the successor, when he died they didn’t know who would take over and they believed it should be someone from his family, Ali was who they chose. 10-15% of the Islam faith: IRAN, IRAQ, AZERBAIJAN, BAHRAIN o IMAM: special title reserved for 12 reverend and infallible spiritual leaders. Ali was the first Imam. o SUNNIS: accepted someone outside of Muhammad’s family. Imam’s lead the group prayers. Made up 80-90% of the Islam faith. Common roots of all three faiths: Abrahamic Faith and monotheistic SACRED SPACE: special religious significance *1918 Balfour Declaration- Britain creates a homeland for Jews within Palestine *Israel limits where Palestinians can build. GENDER ROLES Fundamentalism is on the rise. Conservative and liberal It IS acceptable for women to wear conservative western clothing WAHHABIST the strictest form of Islam. - Prohibits from driving, showing skin, etc. “ARAB WORLD” Religion and language is linked Diffusion of Arabic North Africa: distinct Arabic dialect Persian Gulf: Arabic is the most common language Farsi is spoken in Iran Levant Region: French and English culture Stage for Islam: - Social and cultural display - OTTOMAN EMPIRE: 1300-1922, 6 century rise - CALIPHATE: ruler of Islamic group POST WWI Independence movements, not ready to govern European style. ARAB SPRING: democratic awakening to the Arab world - Began in Tunisia - Driven by concerns over the suppression of religion CLERICS: conservative Muslims - May have accidentally feuded religious revivalism - Muslim vs Muslim st TALIBAN: 1 terndrist group, Afghanistan AL-QUEDA: 2 terrorist group, Osama, militant Sunni Islamic group DAESH(ISIS): 3 group, war broke out, the crazies that currently terrorizing the world
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