CHM103 Week 4 Class Notes (9/12-9/16)
CHM103 Week 4 Class Notes (9/12-9/16) 103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by askcch on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Miami taught by Elliot Atlas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Chemistry for Life Sciences I (Lecture) in Chemistry at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
CHM103 Class N otes eek (9/129/16) ________________________________________________________________________________ From revious ections 1.111.12, 2.12.3 Temp, eat, Energy, Atoms, Isotopes ________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2: Atoms and the eriodic Table 2.4 The Periodic able Metal: A malleable element, with lustrous appearance, good conductor of heat & electricity (can be worked ith/molded) Non metal: Poor conductor of heat & electricity Metalloid: Properties in between metal and nonmetal Elements in a group (vertical column) have similar properties 2.5 Some Characteristics of Different Groups Group 1A lkali etals Lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and rancium (Fr) Shiny, soft metals with ow melting points React with water to form products that re ighly alkaline Never ound in nature n ure tate due to heir igh reactivity Group 2A lkaline arth etals Beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), nd radium (Ra) Lustrous, silvery metals Less reactive han Alkali etals 1A) Never found in nature n a pure state Group 7A Halogens Fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At) Colorful and corrosive non etals Found in nature only in combination with other elements, such as with sodium in table alt (Sodium Chloride) The group name, halogen, is taken from the Greek word als meaning salt Group A Noble ases Helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn) Colorless gases Labeled the noble” gases because they on’t react He, Ne, and Ar don’t combine with any other elements. Kr and e combine with very ew 2.6 Electronic Structure of Atoms The properties of the elements are determined by the arrangement of electrons in heir atoms Electrons are not perfectly free to move. They are restricted to certain energy alues, or uantized Shell: A grouping of electrons in an atom according to energy Shell number > Electron capacity: 1>2, 2>8, 3>18, 4>32 Within the shells, electrons are further grouped into subshells (s, p, d, f) Within each subshell, electrons are grouped into orbitals 2.7 Electron Configurations The exact arrangement of electrons in an atom’s shells and subshells Rule 1: Electrons occupy the lowest energy orbitals available. This is complicated by “crossover” of energies above the 3p level Electrons fil orbitals from the lowestenergy orbitals upward Rule 2: Each orbital can hold only two electrons, which must be of opposite spin Rule 3: Two or more orbitals with the same energy are each halffilled by one electron before any one orbital is completely filled by the addition of the second electron A shorthand using noble gas configurations is very useful for large atoms 2.8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table A valence shell is the outermost electron shell of an atom A valence electron is an electron in the valence shell of an atom 2.9 Electrondot Symbol an atomic symbol with dots placed around i to indicate the number of valence electrons
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