New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology: Proteins and Nucleic Acids

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

Biology: Proteins and Nucleic Acids BIOL 1107

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Biology > BIOL 1107 > Biology Proteins and Nucleic Acids
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

chapter notes supplemented with class notes
Principles of Biology I
Norris A. Armstrong
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Biology I

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Norris A. Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Georgia.


Reviews for Biology: Proteins and Nucleic Acids


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS  Proteins are one of the most abundant organic molecules in living systems with the most diverse range of functions of all macromolecules  Types and Functions o Enzymes  Produced by living cells  Catalysts in biochemical reactions  Usually complex or conjugated proteins  Help break down, rearrange, and synthesize  Catabolic enzymes  Break down substrates  Catalytic enzymes  Impact rate of reaction  Hormones  Chemical-signaling molecules secreted by endocrine cells that act to control or regulate physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction  Usually small proteins or steroids o Have different structures and molecular weights o Structure is critical to function o Denaturation  When changes in temperature, pH, and exposure to chemicals lead to permanent changes in the shape of protein, leading to loss of function  Amino acids o Monomers that make up protein  Each has a fundamental structure, containing a central (alpha) carbon bonded to an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a hydrogen atom  20 make up all proteins o essential amino acids  isoleucine, leucine, cysteine  amino acids that are necessary for construction of proteins in the body but are not produced by the body o sequence and number of amino acids determines the shape, size, and function of proteins o amino acids are attached to one another by double bonds formed by dehydration synthesis (peptide bond)  carboxyl group from one releases hydroxyl and amino group releases a hydrogen to produce water  linkages are referred to as peptides and become polypeptides  free amino group on one end called the N-terminal  free carboxyl group on opposing end called C-terminal PROTEIN STRUCTURE  the shape of protein is critical to its function  enzyme blinds to a specific site referred to as an active site o changing structure manipulates site  primary structure o unique sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain o determined by gene encoding of protein  change in coding of the nucleotide sequence may lead to different amino acids being added to the chain  secondary structure o local folding of the polypeptide in some regions o most common are the alpha-helix and beta-pleated sheets  helix  held together by hydrogen bonding  variant groups protrude out of the helix chain  sheets  formed by hydrogen bonding between atoms on the background of the polypeptide chain  variant groups extend above and below the sheets  tertiary structure o three-dimensional structure o arrangement of variant groups causes three-dimensional structure  quaternary structure o proteins formed from several polypeptides o weak interactions between subunits strengthen overall structure  protein folding o chaperones assist in folding proteins  associate with the target protein during folding  act by preventing aggregation of polypeptides which make up complete structure  denaturation o often reversible because the primary structure of the polypeptide is conserved in the process if the denaturing agent is removed  allows protein to resume function NUCLEIC ACIDS  most important macromolecules for continuity of life o carry genetic blueprint of a cell and carry instructions for the formation of the cell  DNA o Deoxyribonucleic acid o Genetic material found in all living things o Genetic material found in all living things o Found in nucleus and organelles of eukaryotic cells o Prokaryotic cells just have DNA inside o Genome  Entire genetic content of a cell o Determines which genes are “on”  RNA o Ribonucleic acid o Mostly involved with protein synthesis o mRNA  messenger RNA  communicates with cells  nucleotides o monomers that make up DNA and RNA o polynucleotides are multiple nucleotides combines o nitrogenous base, pentose (5-carbon) sugar, one or more phosphate groups  DNA Nitrogenous Bases  Adenine o Purine (2-Carbon Ring)  Guanine o Purine (2-Carbon Ring)  Cytosine o Pyrimidines (1-Carbon Ring)  Thymine o Pyrimidines (1-Carbon Ring) o Carbon labeled as 1’, 2’, 3’, etc. o Phosphodiester 5’—3’ linkage  Phosphate residue attached to hydroxyl group of the 3’ carbon od the sugar of the next nucleotide  DNA Double-Helix Structure o Sugar and phosphate lie on the outside of the helix, forming the backbone of DNA o Nitrogenous bases are stacked on the interior o A  T (U) o G C o During DNA replication, each strand is copies, resulting in a daughter DNA double-helix containing a parental strand and a newly synthesized strand RNA  Single-stranded  Ribose, nitrogenous base, and phosphate  mRNA o messenger RNA o carries message from DNA  controls cellular activity o if a cell requires certain protein to be synthesized the gene is turned on and mRNA is synthesized  rRNA o ribosomal RNA o major constituent of ribosomes on which mRNA binds o enzymatic activity  catalyzes formation of the peptide bonds between two aligned amino acids  tRNA o transfer RNA o one of the smallest RNA  70-90 nucleotides o carries amino acids to site of protein synthesis  microRNA o smallest RNA o regulates gene expression  interferes with mRNA messages  extensive intermolecular base pairing  transcription o DNA dictates the structure of protein  Translation o RNA dictates the structure of protein


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.