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Plants and People PBIO 1030 Week 4 Notes

by: Abbey Marshall

Plants and People PBIO 1030 Week 4 Notes PBIO 1030

Marketplace > Ohio University > PBIO 1030 > Plants and People PBIO 1030 Week 4 Notes
Abbey Marshall
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Clicker Quizzes, exam 2 Week 4 learning objectives
Plants and People
Dr. Thompson
Class Notes
plant, Biology, medicinal, ecosystem, Ethnobotany
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
PBIO 1030 Fall 2016 Week 4 Notes [Readings posted to Blackboard as 2 separate documents: Pollination & Dispersal; Local Forest Resources). The objectives listed below outline what you should know and be able to do after completing each assigned reading. Use these objectives to take notes as you read; review them before class to prepare for clicker quizzes. Monday, September 12 – EXAM 1 covers material from Weeks 1-3. Wednesday, September 14, 2015 (Reading: Pollination & Dispersal) 1. Define palynology and describe how people benefit from this study. 
  Palynology: study of pollen  Essential to petroleum industry  Significant to: o Petroleum geology o Archeology (what agriculture originated in certain areas and what plants were consumed by ancient people) o Criminology (scene of the crime or the whereabouts of a suspect at the time of the crime can be determined by analyzing the pollen clinging to the victim’s body or to the shoes/clothing of suspects) o Anthropology (pollen has symbolic meaning to some Native American tribes) o Aerobiology o Study of allergies 2. Distinguish pollination from fertilization and indicate whether these processes are part of sexual or asexual reproduction.  Pollination: the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma o Self-pollination: pollen transfer within the same individual plant o Cross-pollination: transfer of pollen from one plant to another  Fertilization: occurs once the pollen grain reaches the stigma, it produces a pollen tube, which grows down through the style to the ovary. o egg and sperm come together  Sexual reproduction o Two sperm form with eggs; one creates endosperm, the other creates egg 3. List plant strategies that attract pollinators and the types of animals involved in pollination. 
  Showy flowers attract pollinating animals (color, scent) o Bees  Yellow  Blue  Purple o Wasps o Flies o Ants o Butterflies o Moths o Birds o Bats  Small, inconspicuous flowers are often wind-pollinated 4. Name four ways that fruits and seeds are dispersed and give a specific example for each. 
  Dispersal by wind o Samara of maple has a curved wing that causes the fruit to spin as it is released from the tree (may be carried up to 10 kilometers away from their source)  Dispersal by animals o Shore birds may carry seeds great distances in mud that adheres to their feet o Other birds and mammals eat fruits whose seeds pass unharmed through their digestive tracts  Dispersal by water o Many sedges have seeds surrounded by inflated sacs that enable the seeds to float  Other dispersal mechanisms and agents o Fruits and some legumes sometimes mechanically eject seeds o The splitting action of drying witch hazel capsules may fling the seeds over 12 meters away 5. Explain how human dispersal of plant material can have negative consequences. 
  Most efficient transporters  May carry noxious weeds and plant diseases across continents intentionally or unintentionally Lecture  Gametes: sex cells o 2 sperm in pollen o Ovules (1 egg each) o ½ number of normal chromosomes o 1 sperm forms endosperm, which nourishes the embryo and sometimes people  Rice  Oats  Brazil nuts o Double fertilization  Animal pollinators o Always looking for reward o Mimicry: some animals can disguise as mates to get pollinators such as wasps o Alarm cues: causes animals to fight it, plants get pollinated o Other strategies:  Flies like the rotting meat smell of Carion flower  Fruity smell and white color of Saguro Cactus attract bats  Scarlet Bee Balm color attracts this hummingbird; its beak is also long enough to reach nectar  Turk’s cap lily shaped to be accessible by butterflies  Salvia (in class) has landing pad for bees with a lever  Fig plant (in class) hides its flowers inside a swollen stem o Females lay eggs in some the ovules and in the process, pollinate stigmas then die o Grubs emerge and mate, then males die in fig o Females leave with pollen to find a fig for egg laying  Dutchmen’s Pipe (in class) o flowers attract flies o flower closes and fly gets trapped o Once the anthers become mature and pollen is released, the fly is released  World’s largest pollinator: black and white ruffed lemur from Madagascar for the traveler’s palm Friday, September 16, 2016 (Reading: Local Forest Resources) 1. Using the readings, identify ecosystem services provided by each of these local plant species. We will share these in class and you will be tested on what is covered on Friday.  American Sycamore: o They are also used for landscaping, along streets, and in yards as a shade tree o Sycamores become hollow as they get older and animals can live inside them o Wood used for furniture, flooring, butchers’ blocks, particle board, boxes, crates, baskets o Stop soil erosion o Shade o Resistant to pollution (good landscaping in cities)  PawPaw Tree o Fruit (loaded with vitamin C, antioxidants, and healthy fats, and the only fruit containing all the essential amino acids) o Potential substitute crop for the tobacco that so long sustained the state of Kentucky o Native Americans used the fiber from pawpaw bark to weave nets  Spicebush 
 o Dried drupes have a strong pepper-like taste mellowing to fruit that would be interesting in a variety of baked items such as gingerbread o Fragrance o Twigs used medicinally  STDs  Cough  Hives  Emetic  Yellow Buckeye o Wood is used for furniture, crates, caskets, boxes, and artificial limbs (before new materials)  Lightweight furniture since low density  White Ash o Wood used to make baseball bats, tool handles, furniture, and used as firewood o Popular shade tree for urban areas  Goldenseal o Herb used to treat an abundance of ailments including stomach and circulation complaints, wounds, rashes For more information on trees found in Ohio forests, visit: A recipe for PawPaw and spicebush lassi: spicebush-lassi/


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