Anatomy & Physiology - Membranes
Anatomy & Physiology - Membranes 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Membranes Latin – membrum o “limb” – extension off of tree Definition o Continuous multicellular sheet composed of at least two types of tissue Epithelium bound to underlying connective tissue Exception is non-covering or non-lining membranes i.e. synovial membranes – ends of bones and joints; no epithelium, only connective tissue (2 diff types of connective tissue) covering and lining membranes o cutaneous skin; outside of body o mucous cavities on inside of body; open to external environment o serous lining the inside of the body; not open to the environment shiny on inside of rat – serous membrane cutaneous membrane o keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to dense irregular connective tissue o accumulated keratin protein cellular inclusion in squamous epithelium o function – protection; protects what is underneath our skin o constant renewal of skin o exposed to air – outside of body o is a dry membrane mucous membrane o most contain stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium attached to areolar connective tissue o line body cavities that open to exterior o moist – secretes mucus (rich in mucin) o stomach, esophagus, trachea – lined by mucous membrane o function – absorption & secretion serous membrane o simple squamous epithelium resting on areolar connective tissue o line closed ventral body cavities o thoracic cavity, pelvic cavity, etc. o moist – secretes serous fluid o capillaries run through these capillaries can leak some of the fluid (plasma) which makes up part of the serous fluid o epithelial tissue produces hyaluronic acid (carbohydrate rich secretion); combines with capillary fluid makes a liquid that is really slippery (viscus) provides lubrication o double layered membrane – cavity and organs have this Layers o parietal belongs to the body cavity o visceral belongs to the organ Serosae o pleura serous membrane of thoracic cavity parietal pleura lines cavity visceral pleura is outmost covering of lungs pleural fluid sits between them o pericardium special membrane that surrounds the heart peri – around; cardium – heart parietal pericardium – sac around heart visceral pericardium – outer layer covering heart allows heart to beat without tugging on the wall dissipates heat from contractions o peritoneum parietal peritoneum – abdominal cavity visceral peritoneum – surrounds organs synovial membranes o no epithelium o joint cavity – line cavities of joints o secretes synovial fluid o fluid in synovial membrane lubricates ends of bones so they can slide across one another without a lot of friction also provides a cushion between bones Tissue related defenses o Mechanical barriers Things can’t get into body because these membranes won’t allow it First line of defense o Cilia Acts as a trap o Chemical barriers Tissues that line stomach produce nasty chemicals (i.e. strong acid) which can destroy bacteria and other contaminants on our food Skin produces acid mantle – covering of our skin is slightly acidic Lining of female reproductive tract is acidic o If these are breached, we get an inflammatory response, which isolates pathogen and destroys it o Other defense responses after that Tissue repair o Regeneration Replacing the damaged tissue with the same kind of tissue Cell division Granulation tissue o Fibrosis Replaces damaged tissue with fibrous connective tissue Forms a scar o Not all tissues are equal in their regenerative abilities Epithelial like to regenerate Predisposed to healing Cardiac muscle does not like to regenerate Predisposed to scaring o Process can take years Steps (whenever we have a breach) o Inflammation o Organization o Regeneration and fibrosis Inflammatory events o Chemicals released by injured tissue cells, macrophages an mast cells Act as chemical attractant o Capillaries dilate and become permeable Swelling – accumulation of fluid to the site of damage Edema – accumulation of exidate o White blood cells and plasma fluids leak into injured area o Clotting proteins construct clot Stops bleeding Plugs hole where pathogens could have gotten in Margins of the wound are held in place – helps heal o Scab forms Blood clot dries out Pulling off a scab increases fibrosis Organization events o Blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue Light pink tissue; connective; fibrous proteins Creates framework o New capillary bed is established Reestablishment of proper blood flow through tissue o Fibroblasts close margins of wound Secrete things that help close wound Secrete growth factors cells produce cyclins which combine with cdks to make MPFs Produce collagen fibers – hold everything together o Macrophages digest blood clot o Collagen fibers deposited o THEN, regeneration and fibrosis happens Nutrition & Healing o Vitamin A – epithelium repair o Vitamin B – NS & cardiac muscle tissue repair Prenatal vitamins o Vitamin C – blood vessels and connective tissue o Vitamin D – bone repair and growth o Vitamin E – prevents scaring; reduces fibrosis Stretch marks don’t scar as much o Vitamin K – assisting blood clotting o Blood circulation – delivers necessary nutrition o Age – as you get older, you don’t heal as quickly Embryonic tissue development o Primary germ layers Ectoderm Outside Epidermis of our skin Nervous tissue (detects external stimuli) Endoderm Inside Mucous membranes Mesoderm Middle Muscle tissue All connective tissues come from here o Epithelial tissues come from all three germ layers
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