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Anatomy & Physiology - Membranes

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Membranes 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Membranes
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture on 09/15
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Membranes  Latin – membrum o “limb” – extension off of tree  Definition o Continuous multicellular sheet composed of at least two types of tissue  Epithelium bound to underlying connective tissue  Exception is non-covering or non-lining membranes  i.e. synovial membranes – ends of bones and joints; no epithelium, only connective tissue (2 diff types of connective tissue)  covering and lining membranes o cutaneous  skin; outside of body o mucous  cavities on inside of body; open to external environment o serous  lining the inside of the body; not open to the environment  shiny on inside of rat – serous membrane  cutaneous membrane o keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to dense irregular connective tissue o accumulated keratin protein  cellular inclusion in squamous epithelium o function – protection; protects what is underneath our skin o constant renewal of skin o exposed to air – outside of body o is a dry membrane  mucous membrane o most contain stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium attached to areolar connective tissue o line body cavities that open to exterior o moist – secretes mucus (rich in mucin) o stomach, esophagus, trachea – lined by mucous membrane o function – absorption & secretion  serous membrane o simple squamous epithelium resting on areolar connective tissue o line closed ventral body cavities o thoracic cavity, pelvic cavity, etc. o moist – secretes serous fluid o capillaries run through these  capillaries can leak some of the fluid (plasma) which makes up part of the serous fluid o epithelial tissue produces hyaluronic acid (carbohydrate rich secretion); combines with capillary fluid  makes a liquid that is really slippery (viscus)  provides lubrication o double layered membrane – cavity and organs have this  Layers o parietal  belongs to the body cavity o visceral  belongs to the organ  Serosae o pleura  serous membrane of thoracic cavity  parietal pleura lines cavity  visceral pleura is outmost covering of lungs  pleural fluid sits between them o pericardium  special membrane that surrounds the heart  peri – around; cardium – heart  parietal pericardium – sac around heart  visceral pericardium – outer layer covering heart  allows heart to beat without tugging on the wall  dissipates heat from contractions o peritoneum  parietal peritoneum – abdominal cavity  visceral peritoneum – surrounds organs  synovial membranes o no epithelium o joint cavity – line cavities of joints o secretes synovial fluid o fluid in synovial membrane lubricates ends of bones so they can slide across one another without a lot of friction  also provides a cushion between bones  Tissue related defenses o Mechanical barriers  Things can’t get into body because these membranes won’t allow it  First line of defense o Cilia  Acts as a trap o Chemical barriers  Tissues that line stomach produce nasty chemicals (i.e. strong acid) which can destroy bacteria and other contaminants on our food  Skin produces acid mantle – covering of our skin is slightly acidic  Lining of female reproductive tract is acidic o If these are breached, we get an inflammatory response, which isolates pathogen and destroys it o Other defense responses after that  Tissue repair o Regeneration  Replacing the damaged tissue with the same kind of tissue  Cell division  Granulation tissue o Fibrosis  Replaces damaged tissue with fibrous connective tissue  Forms a scar o Not all tissues are equal in their regenerative abilities  Epithelial like to regenerate  Predisposed to healing  Cardiac muscle does not like to regenerate  Predisposed to scaring o Process can take years  Steps (whenever we have a breach) o Inflammation o Organization o Regeneration and fibrosis  Inflammatory events o Chemicals released by injured tissue cells, macrophages an mast cells  Act as chemical attractant o Capillaries dilate and become permeable  Swelling – accumulation of fluid to the site of damage  Edema – accumulation of exidate o White blood cells and plasma fluids leak into injured area o Clotting proteins construct clot  Stops bleeding  Plugs hole where pathogens could have gotten in  Margins of the wound are held in place – helps heal o Scab forms  Blood clot dries out  Pulling off a scab increases fibrosis  Organization events o Blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue  Light pink tissue; connective; fibrous proteins  Creates framework o New capillary bed is established  Reestablishment of proper blood flow through tissue o Fibroblasts close margins of wound  Secrete things that help close wound  Secrete growth factors  cells produce cyclins which combine with cdks to make MPFs  Produce collagen fibers – hold everything together o Macrophages digest blood clot o Collagen fibers deposited o THEN, regeneration and fibrosis happens  Nutrition & Healing o Vitamin A – epithelium repair o Vitamin B – NS & cardiac muscle tissue repair  Prenatal vitamins o Vitamin C – blood vessels and connective tissue o Vitamin D – bone repair and growth o Vitamin E – prevents scaring; reduces fibrosis  Stretch marks don’t scar as much o Vitamin K – assisting blood clotting o Blood circulation – delivers necessary nutrition o Age – as you get older, you don’t heal as quickly  Embryonic tissue development o Primary germ layers  Ectoderm  Outside  Epidermis of our skin  Nervous tissue (detects external stimuli)  Endoderm  Inside  Mucous membranes  Mesoderm  Middle  Muscle tissue  All connective tissues come from here o Epithelial tissues come from all three germ layers


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